Chapter 1: The Human Body: an Orientation: summary

Chapter 1: The Human Body: an Orientation: summary

Anatomy
is the study of body structures and their relationships
Physiology
is the science of how the body parts function
Topics of Anatomy
Major subdivisions of anatomy include:
gross anatomy,
microscopic anatomy,
and developmental anatomy
Topics of Physiology
Typically, physiology concerns the functioning of specific organs or organ systems. examples include:
cardiovascular physiology,
renal physiology, and muscle physiology.
Complementarity of Structure and Function
Anatomy and physiology are inseparable:
what a body can do depends on the unique architecture of its parts. Function depend on structure.
Level of structural organization of the body from simplest to most complex
Chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, and organismal.
Level of structural organization of the body from simplest to most complex
11 organ systems of the body are
1. Integumentary
2. Skeletal
3. Muscular
4. Nervous
5. Endocrine
6. Cardiovascular
7. Lymphatic
8. Respiratory
9. Digestive
10. Urinary
11. Reproductive
Necessary life functions
All living organisms carry out certain vital functional activities necessary for life, including maintenance of boundaries, movement, responsiveness, digestion, metabolism, excretion, reproduction, and growth.
Survival needs
Nutrients
water
oxygen
and appropriate temperature
and atmospheric pressure.
Homeostatsis
Homeostasis is maintained by negative feedback. Homeostasis is a dynamic equilibrium of the internal environment. all body systems contribute to homeostasis, but the nervous and endocrine systems are most important.
Homeostatsis
Control mechanisms of the body contain at least 3 elements that work together.
Receptor(s)
Control center
Effector(s)
Control mechanisms of the body contain at least 3 elements that work together.
Negative feedback mechanisms
reduce the effect of the original stimulus, and are essential for maintaining homeostasis. Body temp, heart rate, breathing rate and depth, and blood levels of glucose and certain ions are regulated by negative feedback mechanisms.
Negative feedback mechanisms
Positive feedback mechanisms
intensify the initial stimulus, leading to an enhancement of the response. They rarely contribute to homeostasis, but blood clotting and labor contractions are regulate by such mechanisms.
Positive feedback mechanisms
Homeostatic imbalance
With age, the efficiency of negative feedback mechanisms declines. These changes underlie certain disease conditions.
Homeostatic imbalance
Directional terms
allow body parts to be located precisely.
membrane-lined internal cavities
the body contains 2 major closed cavities. the dorsal cavity, subdivided into the cranial and spinal cavities, contains the brain and spinal cord. The ventral cavity is subdivided into the thoracic cavity, which houses the heart and lungs, and the abdominopelvic cavity, which contains the liver, digestive organs, and reproductive structures.
membrane-lined internal cavities
Abdominolpelvic regions
Abdominolpelvic regions
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