Chapter 3 – Essentials of Comparative Politics

Chapter 3 – Essentials of Comparative Politics

society
Complex human organization, a collection of people bound by shared institutions that define how human relations should be conducted
ethnic identity/ethnicity
Specific attributes and societal institutions that make one group of people culturally different from others
nation
A group that desires self-government through an independent state
national identity
A sense of belonging to a nation and a belief in its political aspirations
nationalism
Pride in one’s people and the belief that they have a unique political destiny
citizenship
An individual’s relationship to the state, wherein citizens swear allegiance to that state and the state in return is obligated to provide rights to those citizens
patriotism
Pride in one’s state
nation-state
A state encompassing one dominant nation that it claims to embody and represent
ethnic conflict
A conflict in which different ethnic groups struggle to achieve certain political or economic goals at each other’s expense
national conflict
A conflict in which one or more groups within a country develop clear aspirations for political independence, clashing with others as a result
political attitudes
Description of one’s views regarding the speed and methods with which political changes should take place in a given society
radicals
Those with a political attitude that favors dramatic, often revolutionary change
conservatives
Those with a political attitude that is skeptical of change and supports the current order
reactionary
Someone who seeks to restore the institutions of a real or imagined earlier order
political ideology
The basic values held by an individual about the fundamental goals of politics or the ideal balance of freedom and equality
liberalism
(1) A political attitude that favors evolutionary transformation; (2) An ideology and political system that favors a limited state role in society and the economy, and places a high priority on individual political and economic freedom
liberal democracy
A political system that promotes participation, competition, and liberty and emphasizes individual freedom and civil rights
communism
(1) A political-economic system in which all wealth and property are shared so as to eliminate exploitation, oppression, and, ultimately, the need for political institutions such as the state; (2) A political ideology that advocates such a system
social democracy (socialism)
(1) A political-economic system in which freedom and equality are balanced through the state’s management of the economy and the provision of social expenditures; (2) A political ideology that advocates such a system
fascism
A political ideology that asserts the superiority and inferiority of different groups of people and stresses a low degree of both freedom and equality in order to achieve a powerful state
anarchism
A regional focus when studying political science, rather than studying parts of the world where similar variables are clustered
fundamentalism
A view of religion as absolute and inerrant that should be legally enforced by making faith the sovereign authority
culture
Basic institutions that define a society
political culture
The basic norms for political activity in a society
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