Chapter 3-Give Me Liberty

Chapter 3-Give Me Liberty

proprietor
One who is granted charters of ownership by the king.
King Philip’s War
Conflict that occurred in southern new England in 1675 when an indian alliance launched attacks on farms and settlements that were on lands belonging to the Indians. Most violent war in the region in the 17th century (1600s). Led by Wampanoag or King Philip. He was the mastermind. Fate of new England colonies was unknown. Indian forces were attacking nearly half of the ninety towns in New England, including a destruction of 12 towns in Massachusetts. Refugees were fleeing east. This pushed line of settlement to the Atlantic Coast. 1,000 colonists and 3,000 indians died. In 1676 battle turned into a counterattack, and Indians power was broken. Iroquois provided military aid to the colonists. Metacom was captured and executed, and Indian villages were destroyed. Survivors fled to Canada and New York
Metacom
The leader of the Wampanoag, was also known as King Phillip. Masterminded King Phillips War. Was eventually caught and executed by the colonists
“praying Indians”
Name given to the 2000 indians who were captured after King Phillip’s War and converted to Christianity and were living in communities that were under the supervision of the Puritans
Navigation Acts
Act passed by the parliament under the rule of Oliver Cromwell in 1651. Had a goal to control world trade from the Dutch. At the time the Dutch merchants were profiting from the free trade. In 1660, and 1663 more measures were created. Economic policy of England, which was Mercantilism, was based on the idea that England should get the profits from the English empire. Believed that the most valuable products made in colonial america like sugar and tobacco was to be transported in English ships and be sold in English ports, but could then go to foreign markets. When these items passed through England, taxes were collected on them. Added Taxes.
mercantilism
Theory used by the british. Believed that exports of goods should be exceeding imports, meaning a country, should be sending out more than it receives. The role of colonies was to produce goods that could increase a countries exports. Things that they didn’t have they could get from their colonies that were part of the country.
Anglo-Dutch War
War in 1664 that gave England some control of Dutch trading Posts in Africa, and gave British Control of New York, because the dutch were very weak.
Duke of York
Younger brother of King Charles, was named James, given full and absolute power of Dutch Colony, which became New York. English rule of New York would expand the freedoms of some people.
Iroquois Nations
Formed an alliance known as the Covenant Chain with the Iroquois Indians. Happened after long negotiations with the Iroquois. Five of them assisted the govenor of New York in clearing rival tribes and helping to attack French and the french’s Indian Allies. Soon the Iroquois Nations got attacked by the French, and decided to remain neutral.
Convenant Chain
Alliance made between New York and the Iroquois Nations. Was led by work of New York Governor Sir Edmund Andros.
Charter of Liberties and Privileges (New York)
Many colonists believed that they didn’t have the freedoms or “liberties of Englishmen.” Main upsetness point was the right to fight taxation. No representative assembly was elected. In 1683 a Assembly was elected and they made a document The charter gave all male property holders that were male and free in New York to vote in an election every 3 years. It gave rights such as trial by jury, and security of property. Additionally, religious toleration was promised to the Protestants.
Carolina
In 1663 Charles II gave 8 people the right to create a brand new colony that is North of Florida, to stop Spanish Expansion. In 1670 the first colonists arrived. Was called “the colony of a colony” Started as an offshoot of a tiny Island. At first friendly Indians were given weapons and armed. Charleston was a major city there.
Charleston
City in Carolina. Lots of slaves were exported from said city.
Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina
Issued by the proprietors in 1669, stated that a feudal society with hereditary nobility shall be established. This feudal society had titles such as landgraves and caciques, serfs and slaves. Also gave religious toleration and an elected assembly.
Pennsylvania
Was final English Colony created in the 17th century (1600s). Founded by proprietor William Penn, was a place where those who were going to be faced with persecution in Europe because of their religious beliefs could be free of worries, and live in harmony with the Indians.
Holy Experiment
Created by William Penn, wanted to provide a safe haven for his fellow Quakers, and establish land. Penn wanted his colony to be one that would be “A free colony for all mankind that should go hither” Established colony on quaker principles. made all including blacks, women and Indians equal before godd. Treated Indians with consideration.
William Penn
Founded Pennsylvania, was a proprietor. Was a quaker, was concerned with establishing refuge for fellow quakers that were facing trouble in England. Assisted them in buying half of the colony of New Jersey. Created the Charter of Liberty, greatly believe in Religious freedom.
Lord John Berkeley
Owned New Jersey, due to a grant of land from the Duke of York. Sold half of new Jersey to the Quakers.
West Jersey Concession
A frame of government announced in 1677. Was considered very radical and liberal. Created an elected assembly giving many people the right to vote, and gave religious freedom. William Penn wanted this to become a society of small farmers, instead of one of large land owners
Penn’s Chain of Friendship
Created by William Penn, to appeal to local Indians. It promised local tribes protection from rival tribes that would try and claim domination over them.
Charter of Liberty
Created by William Penn. Wanted people to worship as wanted. He did not make an official church of Pennsylvania, and didn’t make church attendance required.
Frame of Government
Prohibited swearing, drinking, and adultery, as well as sacreligious games such as bull fighting and cock fighting.
Bacon’s Rebellion (1676)
In 1661, an indentured servant was given the accusation that he was planning an uprising. Within 15 years an uprising happened. It started as a minor confrontation between the Indians and the colonists on Virginia’s western frontier. Settlers wanted the governor authorizing to authorize the extermination of the indians so there would be more land for the white people. Berkley refused, and chaos ensured. Became a big kid rebellion. Bacon the leader promised freedom to all who joined him. He gathered an armed force and marched through jamestown and burned it to the ground, governor of Virginia fled, and bacon was new ruler.
Glorious Revolution (1688)
The craziness of England finally arrived in the colonies. The long struggle for control of England between the parliament and the crown finally came to its utmost point when it was established the protestant succession to the throne. King Charles III lead the Parliament to assert its own authority in the form of national policy. In 1688 William of Orange arrived in England with an army of 21,000 men.
Dominion of New England (1686)
Single colony combined into one by Charles II hoping to race money, he combined Connecticut, Plymouth, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, New York, and East and West Jersey into one super colony. Was ruled by Sir Edmund Andros
Sir Edmund Andros
Former New York Governor. Ruled over Dominion of New England. He did NOT have to answer to any elected assembly. Was jailed by Boston Militia.
Leisler’s Rebellion
In 1689, news of the overthrow of King James III led to people actually rebelling in many different American Colonies. Boston militia jailed Edmund Andros. Overthrew the government. Outcome in New York was different. In new york Leisler was afraid that the colony was going to become “Popery and slavery” so he created a division between New York. The dutch saw this and attacked! Eventually Leisler was hanged.
“New England way”
Demised in 1690 was a way of living.
Salem Witch Trials
During the 17th century (1600s) belief in magic, astrology, and witchcraft was widespread. However this was punishable by executation. Before 1692, enforcement of this had been local and randomly, but it all changed. Many big trials took place in Salem Massachusetts. Began in 1691 when young girls started having nightmares, and this was blamed on witchcraft by the elders. Soon three witches were named. The only way to avoid prosecution was to confess and name others. Soon many hundreds came forward accusing others. 14 women and five men were hanged. At the end of 1692 the govenor demanded that the prisionerres be released.
Scotch-Irish
Immigrants that came over from Scotland and Ulster from Ireland. Over 145,000 of them came. They were made up of poor farmers, merchants, professionals, and teachers.
redemptioners
Whenever they moved the Germans traveled as one big family, the Dutch and English merchants created a system for indentured families to pass through and get passage in exchange for paying off debt in America.
Walking Purchase (1737)
Purchase in 1737 brought many fraudulent dealings. Pennsylvania made a deal that they would seel the land that they could walk in a day and a half. 64 Miles were sold in 1737
“backcountry”
Land where scottish-Irish settlers were going to, becoming popular. Appalachia was where it was. Went because they wanted free land.
Middle Colonies
New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.
18th century consumer goods
During the 18th century Great Britan became the worlds largest producer of cheap consumer goods. Examples were coffee and tea, and linen, metal-ware, pins, ribbons, glassware, ceramics, and clothing. As colonies were drawn into the system they shared in consumer revolution.
artisan
a worker in a skilled trade, esp. one that involves making things by hand.
Atlantic World
People, ideas, and goods flowed back and forth across the Atlantic, knitting together the empire and its diverse populations—British merchants and consumers, American colonists, African slaves, and surviving Indian and creating webs of interdependence among the European empires. Sugar, tobacco, and other products of the Western Hemisphere were marketed as far away as eastern Europe.
Colonial Elites
Colonial society led to a wealthy group of select individuals. This caused the gap between the rich and the poor to rise.
Staple Crops
Dominated the crops of Chesapeake Bay in 1750. Included Rice and Tobacco.
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