Criminal Justice

Criminal Justice

1. Criminologists use scientific methods to study the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior.

2. Criminology is an academic discipline that makes use of scientific methods to study the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior.

3. Deviant behavior: departs from social norms

4. Criminologists who devise valid and reliable measures designed to calculate the amount and trends of criminal activity fall under which sub-area of the criminological enterprise? Criminal statistic and crime measurements

5. The sub-area of criminology concerned with the role social forces play in shaping criminal law and the role criminal law plays in shaping society is known as: the sociology of law

6. Research conducted on the links between different crimes and criminals is known as crime typology.

7. The consensus view of crime links illegal behavior to the concept of: social harm

8. The Code of Hammurabi established a system of crime and punishment based on physical retaliation. But, the severity of this physical retaliation depended upon one’s: class standing

9. Trials by ordeal were based on the principle that: divine forces would not allow an innocent person to be harmed

10. The branch of the law that defines crimes and their punishment is known as substantive law.

11. Crimes less serious in nature and punished with a fine or a period of incarceration in a jail are referred to as: misdemeanors

12. Criminal law is shaped by all but which of the following? Social control mechanisms

13. The intent to commit the criminal act is known as: mens rea

14. A battered wife who kills her mate might argue that she acted out of duress – committing her crime to save her own life. She would be using the defense of: justification

15. Murder, rape and other crimes deemed inherently evil are also referred to as mala in se crimes.

16. Statutory crimes are referred to as: mala prohibitum

17. College students who are drunk when they assault other people may claim they were suffering from a mental impairment that prevented them from understanding the harmfulness of their acts. They are using what type of defense? Excuses

18. The availability of government and foundation research money has spurred criminological inquiry and it has also influenced the direction of research.

19. When selecting subjects for research studies, criminologists should ensure they are selected in what manner? Randomly

20. Which of the following is illegal but is not necessarily deviant? Drug use

21. Criminologists conduct research to: measure the nature and extent of criminal behavior

22. The best known and most important source of official crime data is: The Uniform Crime Report (UCR)

23. When researchers want a survey to focus on a particular group of people or to be representative of all members of society they conduct: cross-sectional research

24. A research approach that asks participants to describe their recent and lifetime criminal activity is termed: a self-report survey

25. Observing a group of people who share a like characteristic, over time, is termed: cohort research

26. If criminologists want to see the direct effect of one factor on another, they conduct: experimental research

27. Many times it is difficult to randomly select subjects or manipulate conditions of a study. When this occurs, criminologists must rely on what type of design? Quasi-experimental

28. Meta-analysis involves gathering data from: previous studies 29. According to the NCVS, reported victimizations have: declined significantly during the past 30 years

30. What is known about the trend in property crime rates? Like the violent crime rate, the property crime rate has decreased.

31. The phrase “the ecology of crime” refers to such factors as: season and climate

32. The most recent research dispute the co-offending hypothesis and suggests the great bulk of youth crime is a solo act.

33. The highest crime rate is found in which regions of the country? South and west

34. Crime rates may be higher: on the first day of the month

35. Expressive crimes are associated with those living in poverty who engage in disproportionate amounts of rape and assault as a means of expressing their rage, frustration, and anger against society.

36. According to the chivalry hypothesis, the criminality of females is masked because of the generally benevolent and protective attitude toward women in our society.

37. What theory or hypothesis focused attention on the social and economic role of women in society and its relationship to female crime rates? The masculinity hypothesis

38. Institutional racism undermines faith in social and political institutions and weakens confidence in the justice system. According to the racial threat theory, as the percentage of African Americans in the population increases so too does the amount of social control that police direct at blacks.

39. Official crime data indicate that minority group members are involved in a disproportionate share of criminal activity. Which of the following does not explain race-based differences in the crime rate? Individuals in the US without documentation

40. Which of the following sets of factors would not predict chronic offending? Parental supervision, average grades, average school attendance

41. Criminologists who focus their attention on crime victims refer to themselves as: victimologists

42. What is known about the stress and anxiety suffered by crime victims? The stress and anxiety suffered by both adolescent and adult victims may be long-term, lasting long after the incident is over and the justice process has been forgotten.

43. The abuse-crime phenomenon known as the cycle of violence impacts: girls and boys equally

44. Which of the following is not among the characteristics that increase the potential for victimization? Target ecology

45. Why are the elderly especially susceptible to fraud schemes? Because the elderly generally live alone, are lonely, and possess financial resources that make them attractive targets.

46. Some people may actually initiate the confrontation that eventually leads to their injury or death. Victim precipitation theory

47. When the victim exhibits some personal characteristics that unknowingly either threatens or encourages the attacker it is known as: passive precipitation

48. According to Jacques and Wright’s research on criminal careers, for which criminal offender does becoming a crime victim sets the stage for their breaking away from their chosen profession and transitioning into a new life course. Drug dealer

49. Deviant places are defined as being inclusive of all but which of the following factors? Interracial neighborhoods

50. In routine activities theory, police and homeowners would be an example of: capable guardians

51. According to routine activities theory, homes that contained easily salable objects such as laptops, stereos, and tvs would be classified as: suitable targets

52. Cohen and Felson argue that crime rates increased between 1960-1980 because the number of adult caretakers at home during the day decreased as a result of increased female participation in the workforce.

53. Routine activities theory and the lifestyle approach have a number of similarities, and both predict that people increase their victimization risk. Which factors does not increase one’s victimization risk? Live in areas with a large number of immigrants

54. Which piece of legislation grants money to state compensation boards derived from fines and penalties imposed on federal offenders? Victims of Crime Act

55. Which of the following is a primary aim of victim-offender reconciliation programs? Restitution agreements and reconciliation between the two parties

56. The victim’s ability to address the sentencing judge and tell of his or her experiences as a result of the victimization is known as a:

57. Sex offender registries were legislated as a result of:

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