Describe and Discuss the Value of Empirical

Describe and Discuss the Value of Empirical

Youth Disorder Defined The concept of youth disorder has been examined and studied in detail and length, describing as well as exploring the extent and depth of the nature of construct. The existing definitions of youth disorder vary with the complexities of characterizations and classifications that have been attach to the concept (Goodness, 2001). The concept falls opposite of the word conformity in which any contradiction for the set social expectations is viewed negatively by the majority.

According to Taylor, Walton and Young (1988), youth disorder is “that which is reacted against – by, and on behalf f, the majority of (right-minded) men”. Youth disorder Theories The situations presented above will be more comprehensive through explanations using the theories of youth disorder. Some of these theories Include the labeling theory, the strain theory Labeling theory is related to the social interaction theory in which the link between a particular individual with another is crucial in the completion of the concept of labeling.

Labeling theory Is the process of transference which takes place between the act and the actor relating the behavior to its doer (Giddiness. 1972). The theory is gleeful to the deviant acts of people who performed the behavior once as it concerns itself with people who continuously portray and do the Youth disorder violence. Howard S. Becker emphasized that although the connection Is made between the person and the label of his or her actions, the conceptual link is somehow very loose. According to Edwin M. Lemmas, change in the identity of the person takes place by relating him or her to the deviant action (Jungle-Task and Decker, 2006).

The application of the labeling theory in the observed and conducted Youth disorder violence is clearly understood once the connection between the individuals and their actions are linked. The verb that names their actions will be used as an adjective in the future descriptions that the society will coin them. The theory deals with the acceptability of actions and behaviors performed by Individuals based on the goals of the society in general and the socially accepted meaner of achieving the said goals and objectives.

This theory analyzes the consistency and parallelism of the goals and meaner of an individual with that of the larger community. “Druthers defined the term anomie as a condition where social and/or moral norms are confused, unclear, or simply not present. Druthers felt that this lack of norms–or appreciated Limits on behavior In a society led to deviant behavior” (Guldens, 1972). That are being exercised in order to protect and uphold the defined norms that the society inculcates to its people.

Using the concept of anomie proposed by Druthers, the equation below clearly states and provides the definition he gave in order to explain youth disorder acts that people engage in Anomie = Lack of Regulation / Breakdown of Norms Observing Youth disorder violence: Act and Reactions There are incidents when one can observe simple Youth disorder violence that reprises the people who get to witness such acts. For the completion of this paper, there were three simple deviant acts that were observed in order to clearly understand the concept.

These include a driver not stopping when the traffic light sent the red signal to motorists, a drunken person shouting in the neighborhood at the wee hours of the morning, and a group of students chattering loudly in the library. Act 1 The driver who did not hesitate to stop during the red light traffic in the highway was considered deviant in the context of the other motorists since he did not show the expected behavior during that time (Divine, 1996). Instead of stopping, like what the other motorists did to comply with traffic rules, this particular driver moved along ignoring the traffic signal.

Such non-conformity to what the majority expects made such behavior deviant in the said context. The driver’s behavior made other motorists to blow their horns and reacting negatively to such act. Others rolled down the windows of their cars and raised their voices shouting to the driver (Wilson and Moore, 2003). People in the side of the street were surprised of the act which momentarily diverted their attention from their respective concerns as they looked around and inquired see for themselves what had Just transpired.

Act 2 Another case of deviant behavior was observed one early morning when a drunken man started singing loudly and shouting in the neighborhood when most of the residents in the block were asleep. Commotions were heard thereafter, since the sleep of the neighborhood was disrupted which included the barks of dogs and few people turning their lights on. There were a few individuals who looked out from their houses and checked where the disturbance came from (Graff, 2000). A shout was heard from one of the houses along the street cursing the drunken person angrily.

The behavior which was presented by the drunken man was not taken positively by the residents of the village which was obvious in the reactions of some of the people whose houses were along the street where the act was performed. Since the time when the act was performed indicates the time of rest for the whole neighborhood, the noise which disturbed their sleep was taken negatively by most of the concerned individuals. Act 3 expected loudness of voice inside the library where silence is strictly reinforced. They achieved angry looks from the tables near them where other students were busily concentrating on their academic preoccupations.

Since the chattering did not die down after the first sign of discomfort from other users of the library, the librarian took the responsibility of silencing the small crowd in the table (Filler and Hood, 2004). As these students left the library, people who were really annoyed of their behavior looked at them (some whispering with their seatmates) as they walked away. The common understanding of maintaining silence in the library categorized the chattering of the ladies as a form of deviant act. The Strengths and Weaknesses of Two Different Types of Evidence There is different studies show that young people have anti-social behavior.

In the study of Rod Earl, the operationally variable is anti-social behavior as the quantity of times; any young person less than 18 has been penalized, as they are defined in so called “crowded housing. ” It could be discovered that there are associated variables that is the anti- social behavior rates are definitely greater than the over-populated communities. It can be concluded that anti-social behavior like youth violence can be caused by over populated communities or crowded homes, which can be considered as independent variable in Earl’s study.

The relationship between the two variables change as integrated in correlation, the anti-social behavior and housing density are associated due to transformations. This is manifested that crowded places may cause youth misconduct; however, it could also show other meanings like modifications in variables. There is a third variable that needs to be identified, aspects could be in task. It could be a speculation that people lives in over-populated communities do not have any option, or even have few choices.

Apparently, the youth violence and poor poverty are two related variables, as the other variable is causal and the latter is the outcome. Alternative Approaches to Youth Disorder The practices, institutions and nexus of laws are included in the manifestations that the government is working on the rehabilitations of the youth offenders, which is not as probable as how they focus on other offenders. The government, police and other government agencies in London and Wales also focus on the child-care, not Just to the Juvenile Justice system.

It is the social work who believe that the media pressure ND politics as well to react on the demeanor behavior of youth offenders including the non-accidental injuries among children. The disparity issues in the political significance and social value contributed to the youth offenses are the focus of the Crime and Disorder Act, but this is Just an examination that pursues the development of the youth Justice systems which are transforming institutions which is very complicated. At the same time, these agencies and organizations are humanely and effectively working according to the youth Justice systems, which is very valuable.

The objectives of KAKA is to present the serious enquiry culture and promote the effective and profession practice in the youth Justice system which is successful in a expansion of the youth Justice system in 1998, the expected gist to the associated systematic routines and bureaucratic audit, this increases the stress on governance. This practice can product the consequent impact among Justice systems that search for the easy way to integrate the great principles of the youth Justice system (Simon, 2007).

There is a possibility that government and agencies believe that the mutinous scrutinizes to the transforming supervision, coercions, styles and experience is less between the youth Justice system and the youth. In these cases, the reactions of the agencies involves may be a constructive as those of the youth to the complexities that they have to deal with. The openness and self-questioning to concepts that they encourage is the main element of the practice of reflection. The diversity and vitality of the practice in the youth system, both in and out of London and Wales are all apparent in KAKA.

By evaluating the manner which the problematic behavior of youth and its Jurisdictions are complicated, through the examination of the Justice system in the complicated violent behavior of youth, they have used measurements and instruments on how to solve youth violence. From the year 2009 to 2010, the local authorities and central government have spent more than 700 million GAP to deal with youth crimes, basically by the board named Youth Offending Teams and Youth Justice Board, they would be operating to both local and national.

The entire efforts were done in solving the youth offenses, involving more than 300 GAP on supervision, which is utilized with offenses at about 3%? There were 10% invested on the prevention of young people to engage in offenses. Based on the report of The National Audit Office has forecasted that total amount of 11 GAP billion per year, to the I-J economy (Wilson and Moore, 2003). In the present years, the Youth Justice System has been very successful in pioneering the transformation in the youth Justice and shifting the sources to the most at risk offenders of engaging in youth crimes.

From the year 2000, the population of young people getting in the custody of the youth Justice system, the amount of re-offenses and in custody by youth has dropped Monger-Task and Decker, 2006). This correction institution is quite expensive, as youth custody is focused on youth, which dropped in the period when the adult offenders has continuously to increase. This is specific to observing what they have achieved, in which the institution has been very functional in the integral aspect. There were some issues; on the other hand, there were also more adult offenders.

Presently, there are most possibilities that youth offenders to repeat their offenses, after a complex corrections penalties, as compared in the year 2000, and there are more youth leaving the institution will return again in the succeeding year. Facing these offender is hard, but it has been created more so by low sentence planning and poor standard evaluation, as integrated together with insufficient study into the related success of the various programs. This also adds to more difficulties to perceive which practice or corrections to maintain and which is to eliminate after the Comprehensive Spending Review in 2010.

The board has the consensus to eliminate organization to decision making, There were some issues that re-organization at the time they could affect the intuition development obtained up to the present (Graff, 2000). After the board was abolished, it will be the responsibility of the Ministry to sustain the achievements of the abolished boards, which has obtain in the youth justice, and to effectively answers the issues needed to be resolved. In the past ten years, the number of youth offenders decreased, this is because of the success of the youth Justice system.

There have been enough decrease in the youth population that committed number of offenses and entering the system, though, it is a fact that the degree these genuine reductions are because of discrimination, where the offenders are faced by non-criminal passes (Graff, 2000). Moreover, this decrease, the population of the youth entering the systems has dramatically dropped. All those included in these achievements were acknowledged by the government. Those youth delinquent that serve the system penalties or more complex community penalties retain likely highly to re-offend.

There were a few progresses in the rate of re-offenses for those not returning the system, while there were also three to four re-offending in a year. While, the re-offenses rate for those on more complex community penalizes in being shoddier even they have already undergone the Justice system and penalties. This is why, the Ministry still need to have measurable and clear method for how they will lessen the re-offenses by these youth delinquent. During the third of the evaluation and sentence programs have done by the Youth Offending Teams which are not efficient, based on the examination of the Inspectorate of Probation of Her Majesty.

The evaluation of youth delinquents, and the outcome of penalties and sentence plans to discuss the origins of their offense, are the main manifestations what sources should be aimed. The board of the youth Justice system should utilize the learned lesson from these valuations and its own execution observing to motivate the development of the weak. The youth Justice system board has restricted the confirmation of what the most workable interventions, which make it hard to obtain because of the value of the investment needed, more than 700 GAP in the system Monger-Task and Decker, 2006).

If there is no proof of success and efficiency, there is a danger that the decrease in funds for the correctional services could lead in decrease of their intervention’s success. The Ministry and the Board is committed to sustain spending for research. They have focused on studies on how they will evaluate each intervention by using the most efficient method and integration of the results of the studies to fund their works directly and the people would evaluate and suggest more intense observation in order to ease the challenges.

As these issues are language, speech and classified program focused on the sentence programs. The board should assure that they have the ability to encourage transformation on national level and that they have the local intelligence and methods they would operate in. The board should develop ways in searching and raising their funds. Offenders that would be entering the system the first time, but the funds are being lessened Monger-Task and Decker, 2006). The Ministry and the board should motivate investment in avoidance of the youth crimes which has been recognized by the local authorities.

They should focus on providing enough investments, pilot utilization of other benefits like delegating funds for less custody levels and payments by outcomes. The board does not have enough knowledge in what solutions are being employed by the Youth Offending Teams and the manners they are operating, subsequently; they Anton delegate effective and excellent practice of the programs. The team has to improve their program interventions solely when they have the same content and is goaled at the similar risk aspects, then that is the time that they will be considered as value for money.

The board should be more aggressive in establishing its interventions, common knowledge, dissemination of information and understanding of their effectives to youth offending organizations in the entire Wales and England, involving the content and course materials. The performance of the board and the youth Justice systems and solutions are encountered on the practice and not on the results. The vital sources have been invested in supporting teams whose practices seems weak and nonetheless seems to be sustaining promising outcomes.

The future performance of the Ministry should be on the management and should be clear on identifying the aspect which has resulted to their transformations and outcomes. The elimination of the board of the youth Justice has grown form an assessment of the performance of the boards and policy decisions. The Ministry has created and sustained a unique focus on youth justice and has shared the positive output to the system in the present years (Graff, 2000). There is a danger that some of the elements that made the success of the board will be misplaces in the conversion.

The government should classify the Board’s successes and strengths which has created the programs and operated the system presenting the best aspects which will be sustained in the new youth Justice system, there could be contracts to perform community services and engage in different plans and government programs which is suitable to their offenses. Personal Values and Opinions on Youth Violence Well, in my opinion, youth violence is commonly related to street violence and rampage shootings in campuses and cities. Usually, the rampages in campuses are close knits and low crime.

Basically, the offender is always in the teenage years with no other records for mental disorders and disciplinary issues. They often has academic spectrum, intelligence, however with less social character and sports capability and not valued by peers and other students. In contrast, the street violence prevails in the over-populated communities with rare academic performers, high illicit drug markets which gives more risks to youth. In my opinion, the family and the home environment have great contributions in youth violence and the prevention should start from home.

The gaps in knowledge about the responsibilities of families especially parent’s in the youth violent behavior is very important in the interventions and information policy to encourage the elimination of youth violent behavior. Conclusions We are negatively perceived by people when we look and act contrary to the expectations set by the people around us. This holds true because of the defined guidelines agreed upon by the institutions in the society and the majority of the people.

In the given situations above, it is clear that the behaviors portrayed were labeled as deviant because the context in which the actors behaved and the specific actions they carried out are not consistent with the goals and objectives of the majority of the people they are with. Closely examining the cases of the observed Youth disorder violence using the concept of anomie, it is clear that it was not the absence of regulations and policies made some of the individuals to exhibit deviant acts. It was the lack of reinforcement that paved the way for the specific people to do otherwise.

The youth Justice system should follow the London and Wales Justice model, “welfare’s,” this model focuses on the perspective that youth offenders should be subjected to structured Judicial practices, where their rights before the Justice system can be sustained, though can also result to penalty-centered results. The model of the Justice system presumes that the penalty is the basic logic for the youth justice system, and that penalties should be according to the perpetrator’s history of offense, complexities of the offense and the tariffs of severity. Word count 3295 References:

Collins, R. , 2008, Violence: A Micro-sociological Theory. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Divine, J. , 1996, Maximum Security: The Culture of Violence in Inner-City Schools. Chicago, IL: Chicago. Filler, M. And Hood, R. , 2004, Differences or Discrimination. Youth Justice Board, London. Giddiness, A. 1972, Mile Druthers; Selected Writings. London: Cambridge University Press. Cottonseeds, D. C. , 2001 , Schools and Delinquency. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Graff, R. , 2000, Why Restorative Justice? Repairing the Harm Caused by Crime. London. Calloused Egalitarian Foundation

Haines, K. And Darker, M. , 1998, Young People and Youth Justice Bassoonists, Palaver J. Jungle-Task and S. H. Decker, 2006, International Handbook of Juvenile Justice. London: Cambridge University Press. Simon, J. , 2007, Governing Through Crime: How the War on Crime Transformed American Democracy and Created a Culture of Fear. NY: Oxford. Taylor, 1. , Walton, P. And Young, J. 1988, The New Criminology: For a Social Theory of Youth disorder, Rutledge, London Wilson, D. And Moore, S. , 2003, Playing the Game: The Experiences of Young Black Men in Custody. Children’s Society

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