Dev Psychology Final

Dev Psychology Final

The intelligence concept of “g” was based on the observation that
Skill levels are consistent across the tasks
Dominique is shown a series of triangles of different sizes and colors and is asked to guess what the next triangle in the series might look like. The use of this novel task indicates that the person testing Dominique is most likely assessing — intelligence.
Fluid
The intelligence test developed by Binet and Simon (1904) was specifically designed to
Determine which school children were likely to be slow learners.
Who developed the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale?
Lewis Terman
On the fifth edition of the Stanford-Binet test,
Mental age is no longer used to calculate IQ
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children test differs from the Stanford-Binet test because only the WISC-IV
has separate scores for verbal and performance abilities
An information-processing theorist focusing on intelligence testing would be most likely interested in
How children solve the problems on the test
Given that Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution was based on Darwin’s extremely insightful observation of animals, it is likely that Gardner would have viewed Darwin as having exceptionally high — intelligence.
Naturalistic
People with savant syndrome illustrate that intelligence
Consists of multiple and distinct abilities
According to triarchic theory, person with “street smarts” possesses high levels of — intelligence.
Practical
“Successful intelligence” is best summarized as the ability to succeed in
Life
Miss Whitney asks her class to name the person who invented the cotton gin. This question best represents a measure of
Convergent thinking
Who is demonstrating a high level of ideational fluency?
Drew, who quickly generated a list of 20 novel uses for marshmallows
Why do scores on infant developmental scales appear to be such poor predictors of later IQs?
They may tap qualitatively different abilities
Which statement best summarizes the pattern of IQ-Score change in childhood?
Overall age group stability but large individual variation
Long-term research on children who were in Project Head Start indicates that
Participation in such programs may reduce the likelihood of teenage pregnancy.
What physiological event has been associated with the acquisition of Piaget’s formal operation stage of thinking?
A spurt in brain development
The Flynn effect refers to the observation that
average IQ scores have been increasing
Research on IQ and diabetes indicates that the reason individuals with higher IQs may live longer is because they are
Better able to monitor and treat their illness.
Longitudinal research on IQ change during adulthood indicates that
Fluid intelligence peaks and then declines, while crystallized intelligence remains steady into middle-old adulthood
Terminal drop is the name given to
A rapid decline in the mental abilities of elderly people a few years prior to dying
A study on the development of wisdom in young and elderly women by Staudinger, Smith, and Baltes found that
Expertise is a better predictor of wisdom than age.
Research on aging and creativity has shown that older individuals are –0 than younger adults
As original and less productive with creative ideas
— are the basic units of meaning in a language.
Morphemes
Shakespeare turned in a paper in his English composition class. The teacher returned it with a note that he needs to work on sentence structure. Which aspect of language is this comment addressing?
Syntax
Word segmentation is best defined as the number of
Distinct words in a sentence.
A “babble” is best defined as a — sound.
Consonant-plus-vowel
Concerning language development, joint attention is best defined as occurring when
A parent directs a child’s gaze to an object and names the object for the child.
Joel reaches up to Daddy with waving outstretched arms and says “Up!” meaning “Daddy, pick me up!” This is an example of
A holophrase
Two-year-old Tonka calls every four-wheeled vehicle he sees “truck.” This is an example of
Overextension
Over-and underextension are best associated with — errors.
Semantic
Logan has just realized that the phrase “daddy run” can mean both “daddy is going for a run” and “can I go for a run with daddy.” This realization best illustrates the acquisition of
Functional grammar
John as just developed the ability to convert a declarative sentence (I like pizza) into both a question (Do I like eating pizza?) and an imperative (I must eat pizza). This would indicate that he now is aware of
Transformational grammar
Which examples best illustrates metalinguistic awareness?
Becoming less egocentric and then becoming better able to understand the meaning of selfishness
As a neurobiologist, Dr. Proctor would be most likely to utilize — as an assessment tool.
ERPs
What is the best summary of implications of neurobiological research on language?
There is no doubt that language acquisition is impacted by both heredity and environmental factors.
With regard to language learning, nativists believe that
Children are biologically programmed for language acquisition.
In which areas does there appear to be a sensitive period?
First spoken, second spoken, and signed languages
When describing his ideas on language acquistion, Harlan says, “I believe that humans have a natural biological predisposition toward language and that the environment that the child is raised in also impacts the development of language skills.” Given this description, Harlan appears to hold a(n) — perspective concerning the acquisition of language.
Interactionist
Young infants appear to pay more attention to speech characterized by
High-pitch sounds and varied intonation
Which example best illustrates mastery motivation?
Kramer’s innate drive to succeed.
Preschool programs that emphasize — appear to be the most benefit to children, especially those from disadvantaged families.
Academic skill-building and play
Jeff is a low achiever. After doing well on an exam, he is least likely to say
“I knew I was smart enough”
The key motivation for someone with a strong sense of performance goals is to
Be seen as smart and not dumb
Angelina doesn’t seem to even want to try to do well in her high school math class. If her mom Jolie wants to help her change her self-defeating pattern of behavior, Jolie should
Provide the most cognitively stimulating home environment that she can.
The idea that the letters in printed words represent the sounds in spoken words in a systemic way is referred to as the — principle.
Alphabetic
Characteristic adaptations are — ways of adapting to one’s environment.
Situation-specific and changeable
According to researchers McAdams and Pals, we all share the same
human nature
The psychometric approach to personality has led researchers to believe that personality
Is best thought of in terms of a set of dispositional traits.
Cleo has received a high score on the conscientiousness scale of a personality test. This indicates that she would most likely be
Well-organized and highly self-disciplined.
Who is accurately associated with the social learning perspective or personality?
Mischel
How does the concept of an infant as a “blank slate” fit with the concept of infant temperament?
They are incompatible notions
One-year old Markus loves interacting with his peers. A developmetnal theorist would most likely describe Markus as being high on the — dimension of temperament.
Surgency
Which statement between temperament and later personality is FALSE?
An infant’s high ability to exhibit effortful control predicts a lack of conscientiousness in later life.
Marsh and Kit-Tai Hua’s 2003 study on the “big-fish-little-pond effect” found that a student’s academic self-concept is less positive when students are
In a school with a lot of high achievers
Fidel is a college student who is currently experiencing a moratorium period. This means that he is most likely
Relatively free of responsibilities
Which statement concerning vocational development in adolescence is true?
Minority status may lead one to lower or compromise one’s career plans.
Which statement concerning self-esteem development is true?
Older individuals may retain a high sense of self-image by reducing the ideal-real self gap.
Research on individuals from collectivist cultures challenge the Western assumption that
A person cannot develop normally without individuating one’s self from others.
A brain “hardwired” for — would always show a high level of sensitivity toward others
Communality
Which trait is best associated with the tendency to systemize?
Exploration of how things work
The best summary concerning differences in verbal abilities is that
Females appear to have a small advantage
What is the best conclusion about psychological differences between the sexes?
Males and females are far more similar than different.
At what age do infants first appear to demonstrate cross-modal associations concerning gender information by looking longer at a female face when a female voice is heard vs when a male voice is heard?
One year
Through her mother’s efforts, Olive has just come to realize that she is a girl and has also begun to acquire behaviors expected of girls. This process is best classified as
Gender typing
When asked if it is okay for a boy to play with dolls, Geoffery says, “Absolutely not, it’s a rule that only girls can play with dolls.” Based on research on gender roles and stereotypes, what age is Geoffery’s most likely age?
6
Based on research by Stoddart and Turiel, which two people would you expect to hold the most negative attitudes concerning the violation of gender roles?
A 5 year old and a 13 year old
According to Money and Ehrhardt’s biosocial theory of gender-role development,
Several critical biological events set the stage for different social reactions to males and females.
Which statement concerning the development of genitalia and internal reproductive structures is true?
A fertilized egg can acquire the anatomical and physiological features of either sex.
What is the most likely behavioral outcome of exposing a female rhesus monkey to testosterone during its prenatal time of development?
It will attempt to sexually “mount’ male partners when it reaches sexual maturity.
Which would best fit with the theory that differential treatment by parents negatively influences math skills in a child through the creation of self-fulfilling prophecy?
Parents attribute their daughter’s math success to luck and not ability so the daughter becomes convinced that she is not good at math but rather gets lucky on math tests sometimes.
For Kohlberg, the outcome of the three childhood stages of gender development is the acquisition of gender
Constancy
A major difference between Kohlberg’s cognitive-developmental theory and Martin and Halverson’s gender-schema theory is that gender typing in the gender-schema theory
Begins as soon as children acquire gender identity at around two to three years of age
Androgyny refers to individuals who are
High in masculine traits and high in feminine traits.
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