English 12-Short Story

English 12-Short Story

Character
The representation of a person in a story.
Characterization
The way in which an author portrays a character to the reader.
Hero
Protagonist
The leading or principle figure in a work. The protagonist and antagonist are generally rivals, enemies, or foils.
Antagonist
The character or force that is the rival, opponent, or enemy of the principle character, or protagonist, in a work.
Round Character
A character that has many characteristics. Lots of detail.
Flat Character
A character that has one or a few characteristics. Not much detail.
Static Character
A character that does not undergo a change in character throughout the story.
Dynamic Character
A character that changes through the course of the story.
Stock Character
A conventional character; stereotype. Stock characters people literary works as the allegorical personifications in ancient morality plays to immediately recognizable characters in modern drama, such as the meddling in-laws or the studious “nerd.”
Stereotypical Character
A character who is a cliche.
Direct Presentation
Author provide commentary about a character-appearance, motivation.
Indirect Presentation
Character is interpreted through actions and dialogue.
Plot
The pattern of events in a story.
Rising Action
The events leading up to the climax.
Climax
The highest point in the story. Often times the most suspenseful.
Anti-Climax
The result of something is disappointing.
Falling Action
The events after the climax which brings everything to a close.
Denouement
French for “untying,” the plot’s unraveling, clarification, or solution. the term implies an ingenious, satisfying outcome of the main dilemma, as well as an explanation of the minor plot complications.
Resolution
How the conflict is dealt with.
Foreshadowing
Author drops clues about plot development.
Flashback
Jumping back chronologically to provide information.
Surprise Ending
An ending that isn’t anticipated.
Intermediate Ending
The central conflict is not resolved.
Suspense
The feeling of nervousness and a build up of emotion.
Internal Conflict
The type of conflict a character has within them self.
External Conflict
An apposing force against the character outside of the character.
Limited Omniscient Point of View
The thoughts and ideas of one character is given.
Omniscient Point of View
The thoughts of all characters are given.
Objective Point of View
None of the characters’ thoughts are revealed and the reader is left to infer.
First Person Point of View
Narration using I, Me…etc.
Setting
The place and time a story takes place.
Atmosphere
General feeling of a piece of writing; emotional words are often used.
eg. scary, suspenseful
Tone
Author’s attitude towards subject; uses emotion.
Mood
Feeling created by author’s word choice.
Symbols
Things that represent something else.
Symbolism
Things that happen or objects in a story that provide a deeper meaning.
Theme
The “lesson” or piece of knowledge to be taken away from a story.
Argumentative Essay
Asserts that a particular theory or opinion is correct or more truthful than other perspectives.
Descriptive Essay
Provides details, including sensory ones, to illustrate a point.
Formal Essay
Writing is impersonal, systematic, and often has a serious tone.
Informal Essay
A more relaxed, personal form expression, may use humour.
Personal Essay
Focuses on subjective experiences or personal perspectives.
Expository Essay
Tries to explain something.
Persuasive Essay
Tries to convince a reader, using logic and reason.
Compare and Contrast
Look for similarities and differences.
Pro and Con Argument
Ideas both for and against a particular topic are addressed.
Case Study
A single event or instance is examined in depth.
Cause and Effect
Organizing information so problem is identified first, including its cause, and the subsequent outcome.
Anecdotal Evidence
Using short narratives or hearsay to support a point.
Expert Testimony
Comments on a topic are provided by a subject matter expert.
Historical Reference
An allusion to an event that previously took place.
eg. Waterloo, 9/11
Statistically Evidence
Using numeric principles to support a theory; need to understand reliability and validity.
Chronological Order
The order-time order-beginning, middle, end. No flashback.
Climatic Order
Building from least important to most important information.
Bias
A preference or dislike of something; a personal belief or stance.
Cliche
A metaphor, simile, or expression that is overused and unoriginal.
Colloquialism
An expression that is found in informal situations or in particular regions.
Diction
Word choice; a more sophisticated use of language is considered a “high level” of diction.
Formal Language
Elevated, uses a high level of diction
Informal Language
Conversational, relaxed
Jargon
Specialized language of a particular subject
Parallelism
Using words, phrases, sentences, or ideas that are similar in structure
Rhetorical Question
A question asked for dramatic effect and for which no answer is expected form the audience.
Slang
Words that are commonly used but not acknowledged as correct English.
eg. calling an old car a “beater”
Understatement
Lessening or minimizing the importance of what is being said
Audience
the group a writer is directing her work toward. Impacts language and formality
Purpose
The goal or outcomes being sought by a writer
Author of “Hills Like White Elephants”
Ernest Hemingway
Plot in “Hills Like White Elephants”
-Couple sit and discuss their lifestyle
-Jig looks at the fertile side of the river and talks about having everything
-train is about to arrive, no clear decision
-intermediate ending
Characterization in “Hills Like White Elephants”
The American
-doesn’t seem to care about anything doesn’t want any change or responsibility.
The girl “Jig”-pet name/nickname
-dependent, slightly immature
Conflict in “Hills Like White Elephants”
-She’s pregnant, he wants her to abort it.
-What each wants from the relationship is different
Symbolism in “Hills Like White Elephants”
“white elephant”- burden that is valuable, yet costly
Ebro River- Station side is black and barren
Train Station-junction-couple is also metaphorically at a crossroads
Licorice-looks inviting but not everyone’s favourite
Other side of river, field of grain, trees-not where they are, but where she’d life to be?
Point of View in “Hills Like White Elephants”
-3rd person
-objective
Setting in “Hills Like White Elephants”
-Spain
-Train junction
-1920s
Theme in “Hills Like White Elephants”
-Hard choice in life must be faced
-Relationships don’t always turn out well
Author of “Say Yes”
Tobias Wolff
Plot in “Say Yes”
-whether or not blacks and whites can get married
-would you marry me if I were the same person but black-no
-he changes his mind; she has him turn the light off
Characterization in “Say Yes”
dynamic character-comes to appreciate his wife?
Conflict in “Say Yes”
Is love unconditional
Internal
Point of View in “Say Yes”
Limited omnicient the husband
Setting in “Say Yes”
Kitchen, suburban house
possibly southern California
late 20th century
Theme in “Say Yes”
Love is unconditional
Symbolism in “Say Yes”
-the water/cutlery
-cleaning the kitchen-reverting to beginning
Author of “Yours”
Robison, Mary
Plot in “Yours”
-age difference between couple revealed
-Allison begins to die
-she has Clark so she doesn’t die alone

-Allison askes Clark to help her carve pumpkins
-Clark says her pumpkins are better
-wants to tell Allison that having talents can lead to a frustrating life

Conflict in “Yours”
-negative attitudes towards age difference
Symbolism in “Yours”
-time of day-transition to night-death
-jack o’ lateen-keeps evil spirits away
-Hallowe’en-festival of the dead
Point of View in “Yours”
mostly objective and transitions to limited omniscient
Setting in “Yours”
-Autumn/Hallowe’en
-evening/twilight
-Virginia-back porch
Theme in “Yours”
shouldn’t judge others
if people are happy, who are we to judge?
Characterization in “Yours”
Clark-complacent, supportive
Allison-helpful, caring
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