Eth 125

Eth 125

ETH125 Final Exam


1. Between the year 2000 and 2100, the proportion of the U. S. population that is Black, Hispanic, Asian, and Native American will likely

  • a. triple.
  • b. decline.
  • c. stay the same.
  • d. double.

2. When belief in the inheritance of behavior patterns is coupled with the feeling that certain groups are inherently superior to others it is called

  • a. racism.
  • b. ethnocentrism.
  • c. prejudice.
  • d. racial formation.

3. The hierarchical system for possession of wealth, prestige, or power is called

  • a. ethnic groups.
  • b. stratification.
  • c. age.
  • d. functionalism.

4.Assimilation tends to take longer under which of the following conditions?

  • a. The minority group maintains its own culture.
  • b. The minority group residents are dispersed.
  • c. The homeland of the immigrants is far away and inaccessible.
  • d. The minority group arrives over an extended period of time.

5. The development of solidarity among ethnic subgroups is called

  • a. pluralism.
  • b. panethnicity.
  • c. fusion.
  • d. marginality.

6. Ethnocentrism is

  • a. the belief that each culture is equally valid.
  • b. the basis for all discriminatory behavior.
  • c. rare in diverse societies.
  • d. the tendency to assume that one’s culture is superior to all others.

7. Hate crimes are criminal offenses committed because of the offender’s bias against a

  • a. race or ethnic group.
  • b. religion group.
  • c. sexual orientation group.
  • d. any of these

8. A negative attitude toward an entire category of people is known as

  • a. prejudice.
  • b. discrimination.
  • c. exploitation.
  • d. authoritarianism.

9. The process of denying certain opportunities and equal rights or privileges to individuals and groups is known as

  • a. prejudice.
  • b. assimilation.
  • c. discrimination.
  • d. ethnocentrism.

10. A group that is blamed irrationally for society’s problems or difficulties is known as a

  • a. contact.
  • b. scapegoat.
  • c. stereotype.
  • d. pluralist.

11. Stereotypes are generalizations about all members of a group that

  • a. are unreliable.
  • b. are exaggerated.
  • c. do not take individual differences into account.
  • d. all of these

12. Any police-initiated action based on race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than behavior is called

  • a. stereotyping.
  • b. scapegoating.
  • c. racial profiling.
  • d. driving while black (DWB).

13. The denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups which results from the normal operations of a society is known as

  • a. prejudice.
  • b. the contact hypothesis.
  • c. the definition of a situation.
  • d. institutional discrimination.

14. Transfers of money, goods, or services that are not reported to the government and are common in inner-city neighborhoods and poverty-stricken neighborhoods and poverty-stricken rural areas is known as the

  • a. casual economy.
  • b. informal economy.
  • c. unceremonious economy.
  • d. comfortable economy.

15. As of 2003, which of the following groups had the lowest median income?

  • a. Hispanic females
  • b. Black males
  • c. White females
  • d. Black females

16. The 1964 Civil Rights Act led to the establishment of the

  • a. Glass Ceiling Commission.
  • b. Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC).
  • c. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC).
  • d. Affirmative Action Board.

17. Minorities are discriminated against by redlining when

  • a. police practice racial profiling.
  • b. speed limits are rigorously enforced in certain neighborhoods.
  • c. students with low test scores are failed.
  • d. mortgages are denied for houses in minority neighborhoods.

18. Which term refers to positive efforts to recruit minority group members or women for jobs, promotions, and educational opportunities?

  • a. affirmative action
  • b. institutional discrimination
  • c. the quota system
  • d. goal displacement

19. The charge that affirmative action programs unfairly penalize White males leads to the view of

  • a. thnocentrism.
  • b. reverse discrimination.
  • c. underclass.
  • d. secondary labor market.

20. About __________ of the U. S. population today is foreign-born.

  • a. 25%
  • b. 12%
  • c. 40%
  • d. 65%

21. Beliefs and policies favoring native-born citizens over immigrants is called

  • a. racism.
  • b. ethnocentrism.
  • c. nativism.
  • d. absolute deprivation.

22. The Chinese Exclusion Act

  • a. was passed with little debate by Congress.
  • b. outlawed Chinese immigration for 10 years.
  • c. denied naturalization to Chinese already in the U. S.
  • d. all of these

23. The quotas under the national origins system were based on

  • a. roportions of people desiring to enter the United States from abroad.
  • b. waiting lists of people wishing to immigrate to the United States.
  • c. the number of people descended from each nationality recorded in the 1920 census.
  • d. ability to pay for visas.

24. Which term refers to the immigration to the United States of skilled workers, professionals, and technicians who are desperately needed by their home countries?

  • a. population explosion
  • b. brain drain
  • c. undocumented workers
  • d. national origins

25. The best available information suggests that __________ illegal immigrants live in the United States.

  • a. ore than 8 million
  • b. somewhat over 3 million
  • c. more than 20 million
  • d. less than 400,000

26. From a __________ perspective, by paying low wages to illegal immigrants, employers are able to produce goods and services that are profitable and affordable.

  • a. conflict
  • b. interactionist
  • c. exchange
  • d. functionalist

27. People living outside their country of citizenship for fear of political or religious persecution are called

  • a. asylees.
  • b. refugees.
  • c. transnationals.
  • d. remittances.

28. What is the effect of placing the former Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) under the auspices of Homeland Security?

  • a.It makes it nearly impossible for terrorists to get into the country.
  • b. It sends a chilling message to immigrants who are portrayed as potential terrorists.
  • c. It eliminates employment opportunities for immigrants, the only real way to slow immigration.
  • d. all of these

29. The first Africans in colonial America were indentured servants whose children were

  • a. designated as slaves.
  • b. born free people.
  • c. also indentured servants.
  • d. sent back to Africa.

30. Among the factors contributing to the loss of African cultures by the slaves in America was that

  • a. they were forbidden to practice their native religion.
  • b. slaves had no time apart from the slave owners.
  • c. slaves had no opportunity to communicate with one another.
  • d. they lost all memory of their native homes.

31. The Emancipation Proclamation

  • a. worsened the state of the slave status.
  • b. freed the slaves in the Confederacy.
  • c. freed all slaves.
  • d. was eradicated by the Supreme Court.

32. During the Reconstruction period

  • a. Whites and Blacks could not marry one another.
  • b. schools remained segregated.
  • c. Blacks were elected to many public offices.
  • d. Blacks were not allowed to organize political groups.

33. In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), the Supreme Court

  • a. upheld the right of governments to deny the right to vote on the basis of race.
  • b. ended the right of individuals to practice racial discrimination.
  • c. strengthened Jim Crow laws, and “separate but equal” became the law of the land.
  • d. said that the states could not pass laws which created racial segregation.

34. The Niagara Movement directly led to the formation of the

  • a. Urban League.
  • b. Black Panther’s Party.
  • c. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
  • d. Million Man March.

35. The military was desegregated by order of President

  • a. Roosevelt.
  • b. Truman.
  • c. Kennedy.
  • d. Johnson.

36. Striking down de jure school segregation in the 1950s was

  • a. the Dred Scott decision.
  • b. Plessy v. Ferguson.
  • c. Brown v. Board of Education.
  • d. Williams v. Mississippi.

37. Which of the following was part of Martin Luther King, Jr. ’s civil disobedience strategy?

  • a. Active nonviolent resistance
  • b. Seeking to win the friendship and understanding of opponents
  • c. Willingness to accept suffering without retaliation
  • d. all of these

38. Government records made public in 1973 revealed that the FBI

  • a. had infiltrated the Ku Klux Klan to detect violent crimes against African Americans.
  • b. ad infiltrated civil rights groups to discredit them.
  • c. knew about Kennedy’s assassination in advance.
  • d. believed civil rights activists were good and loyal Americans.

39. Stokely Carmichael differed from King in that Carmichael rejected the goal of

  • a. assimilation into White middle class society.
  • b. Blacks creating new institutions.
  • c. group solidarity.
  • d. Black power.

40. The education gap between Whites and Blacks has narrowed, but in 2003_________ White men held a college degree compared with Black men.

  • a. twice as many
  • b. three times as many
  • c. four times as many
  • d. six times as many

41. Data since the 1960s indicate that

  • a. there is more racial diversity now than ever before in public schools.
  • b. public schools are becoming increasingly segregated by race.
  • c. apartheid in education is a thing of the past.
  • d. African-American students are more likely to have white classmates than 30 years ago.

42. An African American family is __________ likely to live below the poverty line than a non-Hispanic white family.

  • a. three times more
  • b. twice as
  • c. no more
  • d. five times more

43. Black sociologist Franklin Frazier viewed members of the Black middle class as

  • a. exhibiting extreme prejudices.
  • b. lucky.
  • c. concerned with the plight of the underclass.
  • d. preoccupied with becoming acceptable to White society.

44. A number of Muslim and Arab nonprofit organizations have formed to accomplish which of the following?

  • a. Represent their political interests
  • b. Promote understanding
  • c. Bring attention to discrimination and prejudice
  • d. all of these

45. A simplistic view of the people and history of the Orient without recognition of cultural diversity and change over time is called __________.

  • a. racism
  • b. orientalism
  • c. deficit model of ethnic identity
  • d. Panethnicity

46. In which of the following ways are Arab Americans diverse?

  • a. time of arrival to the U.S.
  • b. a rich variety of religious traditions
  • c. point of origin
  • d. all of these

47. There are large percentages of Muslim Americans who are

  • a. South Asian.
  • b. African American.
  • c. Arab.
  • d. all of these

48. The Indian Removal Act and the Trail of Tears are examples of

  • a. expulsion.
  • b. extermination.
  • c. genocide.
  • d. all of these

49. In an effort to assimilate Native Americans into White Society, the federal government

  • a. tried to weaken tribal institutions.
  • b. provided extensive training and resources so Native Americans could become homesteaders.
  • c. recognized and respected tribal identity.
  • d. rotected the authority of tribal governments.

50. Today there are 557 Indian reservations in the U. S. , comprising __________ of the land throughout the U. S.

  • a. half
  • b. one-third
  • c. about 2 percent
  • d. one-quarter

51. Which of the following describes pan-Indianism?

  • a. intertribal social movements
  • b. several tribes which are joined by political goals unite
  • c. several tribes unite in a common identity
  • d. all of these

52. Nationwide, __________ of employed Native Americans earn less than $10,000.

  • a. one-tenth
  • b. one-quarter
  • c. one-third
  • d. one-half

53. What’s the problem with the term Native American?

  • a. It doesn’t reflect the Indians’ names for themselves.
  • b. It originated from the perception of Whites.
  • c. It includes a diverse group under the same generic name.
  • d. all of these

54. The development of solidarity among ethnic groups, as reflected in the term Hispanic, is

  • a. out-group bonding.
  • b. panethnicity.
  • c. assimilation.
  • d. immersion.

55. Nearly _______ of Hispanics in the United States are Mexican Americans.

  • a. one-fourth
  • b. one-half
  • c. one-third
  • d. two-thirds

56. The largest Hispanic group in the United States after Mexican-Americans and Puerto Ricans is

  • a. Salvadorans.
  • b. Brazilians.
  • c. Cubans.
  • d.Haitians.

57. Marielitos refers to a recent group of refugees who arrived in the United States from

  • a. Haiti.
  • b. Puerto Rico.
  • c. Cuba.
  • d. Dominican Republic.

58. Cuban immigration increased tremendously

  • a. after the 1959 Cuban Revolution.
  • b. with the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
  • c. after Che Batista’s assumption of power.
  • d. after the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962.

59. Among the factors that distinguish Central and South Americans in the United States from each other is

  • a. language.
  • b. skin color.
  • c. social class.
  • d. all of these

60. The poverty rate among Latinos in the U. S. is

  • a. 8%.
  • b. 22%.
  • c. 80%.
  • d. 1%.

61. The program of deporting Mexicans during the 1930s was called

  • a. los mojados.
  • b. repatriation.
  • c. Operation Wetback.
  • d. the bracero program.

62. The term La Raza is used to connote pride in

  • a. the White race.
  • b. a pluralistic Spanish, Indian, and Mexican heritage.
  • c. Puerto Rican culture.
  • d. the literature of Navajo Indians.

63. Which of the following is true about migrant workers in the U. S.?

  • a. They are much more likely to suffer from poor nutrition.
  • b. The majority lack health insurance.
  • c. Most make less than $10,000 year.
  • d. all of these

64. The Jones Act of 1917 granted Puerto Ricans

  • a. statehood.
  • b. independence.
  • c. citizenship.
  • d. the right to use English as the official language.

65. Among Puerto Ricans who live on the island, __________ speak only English.

  • a. 8%
  • b. 15%
  • c. 20%
  • d. 35%

66. When a group experiences prejudice and discrimination, yet seems to have succeeded economically, socially, and educationally without resorting to political or violent confrontations with Whites, they are said to be a

  • a. model minority.
  • b. passive minority.
  • c. nonlimited minority.
  • d. winner minority.

67. Of the following, which Asian American group has the highest levels of educational achievement?

  • a. Asian Indians
  • b. Vietnamese
  • c. Hmong
  • d. Cambodian

68. In 2002, _______ of Asian Americans over age 25 held bachelor’s degrees compared to 30. 6% of Whites.

  • a. 32%
  • b. 57%
  • c. 45%
  • d. 12%

69. Which of the following statements is true regarding Asian Americans and income?

  • a. On average, they earn more than Whites.
  • b. Their income is related to school achievement.
  • c. They earn less per year of education than Whites with the same educational attainment.
  • d. all of these

70. __________ comprise the largest Asian American group.

  • a. Japanese Americans
  • b. Vietnamese immigrants
  • c. Chinese Americans
  • d.Filipinos

71. Following the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act, Chinese became eligible to immigrate again in

  • a. 1884.
  • b. 1898.
  • c. 1943.
  • d. 1965.

72. The term Issei refers to

  • a. Chinese immigrants to the U. S.
  • b. Japanese immigrants to the U. S.
  • c. American-born Chinese.
  • d. American-born Japanese.

73. Which President is responsible for the order to place Japanese Americans in evacuation camps during WWII?

  • a. Harry S Truman
  • b. Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • c. Lyndon Johnson
  • d. Woodrow Wilson

74. Compared to Whites, Japanese Americans as a group have

  • a. more education but occupy lower status jobs.
  • b. etter jobs despite overall lower educational attainment.
  • c. lower levels of educational attainment and occupy poorer jobs.
  • d. higher wages and more education.

75. Which of the following is a problem in Chinatowns?

  • a. Women live a harsh existence, sometimes including domestic violence.
  • b. Lower class youth, who are not part of the model minority, turn to gangs such as the Ghost Shadows and Flying Dragons.
  • c. Immigration has led to increases in crime and housing problems.
  • d. all of these

76. The concept of race is

  • a. determined by blood type.
  • b. biologically based on genetically isolate groups.
  • c. socially constructed.
  • d. predicted by skin shade increments.

77. The act of conferring citizenship on a person after birth is called

  • a. de facto citizenship
  • b. nativism
  • c. naturalization
  • d. residential citizenship

78. The enactment of the Civil Rights Act on July 2, 1964 was under

  • a. President Jimmy Carter
  • b. President Ronald Regan
  • c. President Gerald Ford
  • d. President Lyndon B. Johnson

79. The single most unifying force among Arabs are

  • a. geography
  • b. religion
  • c. clothing
  • d. language

80. Tribal self-rule is called

  • a. sovereignty
  • b. powwows
  • c. kickouts or pushouts
  • d. set-offs
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