Human Rights

Human Rights

Value Education –Human Rights Foundation Course –I (Part-IV) for Undergraduate Programmes Learning Material based on Syllabus (2008-2009) Bharathiar University Coimbatore BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY : COIMBATORE 641 046. Value Education – Human Rights (2 hours per week) (FOR THE UNDER GRADUATE STUDENTS OF AFFILIATED COLLEGES WITH EFFECT FROM 2008-2009) UNIT – I :ConceptofHumanValues,ValueEducationTowardsPersonal Development Aim of education and value education; Evolution of value oriented education; Concept of Human values; types of values; Components of value education. Personal Development :

Self analysis and introspection; sensitization towards gender equality, physically challenged, intellectually challenged. Respect to – age, experience, maturity, family members, neighbours, co-workers. Character Formation Towards Positive Personality: Truthfulness, Constructivity, Sacrifice, Sincerity, Self Control, Altruism, Tolerance, Scientific Vision. UNIT – II : Value Education Towards National and Global Development National and International Values: Constitutional or national values – Democracy, socialism, secularism, equality, justice, liberty, freedom and fraternity.

Social Values – Pity and probity, self control, universal brotherhood. Professional Values – Knowledge thirst, sincerity in profession, regularity, punctuality and faith. Religious Values – Tolerance, wisdom, character. Aesthetic values – Love and appreciation of literature and fine arts and respect for the same. National Integration and international understanding. UNIT – III : Impact of Global Development on Ethics and Values Conflict of cross-cultural influences, mass media, cross-border education, materialistic values, professional challenges and compromise.

Modern Challenges of Adolescent Emotions and behavior; Sex and spirituality: Comparision and competition; positive and negative thoughts. Adolescent Emotions, arrogance, anger, sexual instability, selfishness, defiance. UNIT – IV : Therapeutic Measures Control of the mind through a. Simplified physical exercise b. Meditation – Objectives, types, effect on body, mind and soul c. Yoga – Objectives, Types, Asanas d. Activities: (i) Moralisation of Desires (ii) Neutralisation of Anger (iii)Eradication of Worries (iv)Benefits of Blessings UNIT; V : Human Rights 1. Concept of Human Rights – Indian and International Perspectives a.

Evolution of Human Rights b. Definitions under Indian and International documents 2. Broad classification of Human Rights and Relevant Constitutional Provisions. a. Right to Life, Liberty and Dignity b. Right to Equality c. Right against Exploitation d. Cultural and Educational Rights e. Economic Rights f. Political Rights g. Social Rights 3. Human Rights of Women and Children a. Social Practice and Constitutional Safeguards (i) Female Foeticide and Infanticide (ii)Physical assault and harassment (iii)Domestic violence (iv) Conditions of Working Women 4. Institutions for Implementation a. Human Rights Commission b.

Judiciary 5. Violations and Redressel a. Violation by State b. Violation by Individuals c. Nuclear Weapons and terrorism d. Safeguards Unit-I Concept of Human Values, Value Education Towards Personal Development Man is a social animal in that whatever he needs and wants he gets from the labour and cooperation of the society. Similarly, whatever he produces materially and whatever the knowledge he acquires are spreading to all people of the world. To cope with the diverse modern environments everyone should have holistic education to sympathize and live in tolerance with the standards of his fellow beings.

By the phrase “holistic education” I am not including the specific sciences, which can be learned according to the wish of the individual; what I mean is the overall education of the facts of human life, including human values, which are the culmination of the evolutionary process of mankind. In primordial times man lived on the earth in small groups. Each group developed its own way of life according to the climate, available natural resources and the developed production skills. There was little opportunity to spread over a wider area and encounter or adopt the cultural values of others.

Such restrictions have been removed these days by rapid transportation, communication and international educational facilities. Social environments have entirely changed. To fully avail of the present opportunities for a better life the modern educational system should be reformed and reoriented. This is what I stress as the need for holistic education. Due to the lack of such education the majority of people in human society are leading a life of ignorance and following obsolete, useless principles and beliefs.

In reality, the world is one; the sea is one to supply water for all by way of vapour-cloud- rain; the air we breathe is only one. Man has not created any one of these four essential resources. Everybody is born, grows, lives and dies. During the lifetime everyone enjoys the benefits of labour and technical knowledge of all the people. In turn, everyone’s production and services go to all people of the society. Then why are enmity, hatred, exploitation and wars extant in human society? In every war one group of people kills the other group. What can be the net result?

Only murderers will survive in the world. Any person of ordinary intelligence can realize the fact that war is not beneficial in any way for human society. It continues only die to conditioned thinking and spurred by those who prosper by selling war materials. Although the human race has existed over thousands of years, the individual life is experienced only once. Why should its enjoyment be sacrificed due to ignorance? Individuals who are living engrossed in sensory engagement cannot understand the detrimental results of their own actions.

It is the responsibility of elders and enlightened people the best way of life, and then disseminate the knowledge through all available media. Such a planned method of living should be inculcated as a holistic education in all institutions to truly civilize all people, whatever may be their other fields of study. As a result of holistic education one would know the values of human life, how to respect others, how to be aware and avoid doing harm and at the same time, being ready to help others in all possible ways. These values are the culmination of our inborn sixth sense and their implementation is the very purpose of human birth.

Through holistic education, each person should know himself as completely as possible, i. e. , his body mind, knowledge, consciousness, genetic center, and brain function, including the process of storing and releasing all the experiences of life. Education in the science of living should begin with the basics of understanding the human physiology, growth and development: the importance of personal hygiene; reproductive health; physical and mental energy use, conservation and potential; prevention of disease; healthy eating habits; and simple first-aid and self-medication with home remedies.

The next level would be learning about the importance and value of one’s relationships –with parents, teachers, friends colleagues, the future life partner and children. The concepts of morality, ethics, duty, honesty, sincerity, kindness and compassion should be imparted. Each person should know how to adjust with others and be prepared to sacrifice his whims and pleasures for the benefit of the group or family so as to avoid conflict and live in harmony. Education can be categorized into five divisions. They are: 1) Cultural 2) Social 3) Productive 4) Science and technology 5) Spiritual

To cope with the modern age, all these five kinds of education are needed for all people in the society. 1) Learning life-education from parents without going to school is cultural education. This education naturally evolved according to the time, place and environment in which the people lived. 2) Learning a virtuous way of life following morality, duty and charity is social education. This kind of education is a must for protection, help, distribution of commodities and facilities and for peaceful living with one’s fellow beings. 3) The basic needs of mankind are food, shelter and clothing.

Learning the process of producing the above, as well as other skills related to these industries are productive education. 4) Age after age, year after year, new and easy methods for living are discovered by the scientists and technicians. Learning these new technologies and enhancing the standard of living is the education of science and technology. 5) Knowing the three invisible truths of the Unified Force, life force and universal and bio-magnetic forces and maintaining physical health and mental health of self and society is spiritual education.

In the earlier age of life it is necessary for everyone to be given these education for prosperity, happiness and peace of the society. Because of a lack of these imperative systems of education poverty, crime, conflicts, problems in life and wars emerge. Absence of such proper education results in the torturing of mankind and suppressing the development of consciousness. The purpose of life is being lost. The Heart of Education Introduction Over the past decades since the inception of our modern school and collegiate system, educators, parents and students have realized there is an area of insufficiency in the system we have instituted.

Although academic subjects may be thoughtfully planned and courses have been structured for the maximal suitability and benefit of our youth for career purposes, the topic of personal behavior and attitudes has not been given due importance or emphasis in the educational curriculum. The assumption has been that children imbibe all the values and ethics they need from their home lives, and that it is not the purview of the educational system to discuss these at all, especially since it was felt that such discussion may lead us into controversies among various communities.

However, as a nation we now realize the error in this assumption and there is widespread recognition of the need to talk about values in our educational system as they pertain to every sphere of life. We can all acknowledge that there is no need to worry about cultural sensitivities or controversy if the most basic values are taught to our youth, as there are many values, which are admitted to be universal.

Certain community or culturally based values may be relative, but there are attitudes and behaviors based in universal values that unquestionably contribute to the health, happiness and wealth of each person and the society as a whole. The evidence is all round us that the lack of such education results in selfishness and an uncaring attitude toward one’s fellowmen; at worst it results in violence, exploitation and utter disregard for life that no society can afford or it will forfeit its prosperity and peace, and be liable to descend into anarchy or fascism.

Our wonderful country, simultaneously blessed and burdened with its extreme density of population and diversity of communal and religious sentiments, can only survive with a majority that is mentally and physically healthy, tolerant and liberal in outlook, as only such citizens will be able to care for and work for the prosperity of all. Aims of Education All round development of individuals is possible through education. Among it intellectual, mental and functional development is expected. Though cognitive and conative domains are developed through today’s educational system, affective domain cannot receive its proper place.

That is the reason for paucity of national attitude, and social consciousness among students. If moral, social and spiritual values are exchanged through the media of subject content, emotional development will easily be possible. Following are the chief aims of education: 1. Knowledge 2. Understanding 3. Application 4. Skill 5. Interest and aptitude 6. Appreciation 7. Inculcation of human values NEP 1986 prepared value based curriculum. It also made clear and fixed particular values along with objectives while teaching particular units. Education objectives Human Value ExperienceEducation (Curriculum)

The purpose of Virtuous Life The question is why we should strive for a virtuous life. What is it that makes life virtuous? ‘Virtue is knowledge’ was the principle of Socrates. All knowledge should end in virtuous living was his interpretation. Knowledge without virtue is meaningless. Our forefathers focused their attention in leading a virtuous life. According to Socrates (470-399 B. C), greatest good of mankind lies in the virtues like courage, friendship, love and so on. Aristotle (384-322 B. C. ) was the disciple of Plato. He said, “We strive for goodness of the things surrounded by us.

What is important is not to live long but to live well. ” Concept of value: Though meaning of value is originally related to economic value, philosophes like, Rudaullah lotse, Albrace Richel in nineteenth century attached more extensive meaning to value. It is in this broad sense, we today, use the term value as ‘Literary value,’ ‘Democratic Value’, ‘Life Value’ and ‘Education value in our day to day speaking and writing. In life process man accepts good things and avoids bad things. It is not human living to act neutrally and in the light of witness only. Acceptable and non-acceptable, good and bad are the nature of values.

Values are established and they are practicable. They can be achieved. Chilana (1987) studied Indian culture and observed that Indian culture is based on the values, viz, kind heartedness, self control, universal brotherhood, honesty, respect to others and faith. Due to deterioration of these values, new values like indiscipline and destructive mentality came into existence. He suggested to include these values in curriculum and called it value-based curriculum. Criteria to fix value It has not been yet stated how to fix the criteria to decide the values. Dr. Gawande (1994) put forth the following four criteria.

It is very difficult to decide whether a particular human behaviour is value based or not because human behaviour is either individual phenomenon or it is ruled by the situation. The behaviour that I appreciate may not be appreciable by others. In order to abolish its personal touch, human behaviour will have to be judged with the application of these four criteria. Criteria 1. Individual progress should be achieved through expected behaviour. 2. Expected behaviour should be conducive to society. 3. Expected behaviour should be conducive to a nation. 4. Expected behaviour needs to be accepted on international level.

If human behaviour fulfills all these criteria then above it is human value. If a particular human behaviour satisfies only one or two criteria it cannot be called human value. Therefore, if any behaviour satisfies all the four criteria then only it is called human value. Definitions of Human Value a) Roketch: Value is defined as enduring belief, a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence alongwith eontinum of importance. b) Kluchhohn: Value is a conception of desirable and not something desired. c) Shaver: Values are standards and principles for judging worth. d) Gawande:

It is an adjusted human behaviour which is conductive to the development of himself, society, nation and international understanding. Human value is an academic behaviour through which progress of individual, society, nation and international understanding are created. Education aims at all round development of human beings, therefore Cognitive, Conative and Affective domains are taken to task at learning levels for individual progress. By exchange of subject information, development in cognitive domain is easily possible. Application of skills, is conative domain and is related to fixing of human values and its preservation.

Until an emotional feeling does not exits, an individual cannot achieve wisdom. This important part is neglected through curriculum. Thus inculcation of value education is for emotional development. It is through this that we establish men of character, responsible citizens and sensitive personality of individuals. An individual so described discharges the responsibility of both rights and duties. It is in this sense that value education becomes indispensable for all round human development. Dr. Eknath Gawande (1994) therefore defines value education in the following words: Definition:

When human values are inculcated through curriculum to transcend to cognitive, affective and psychomotor level for conducive development of individual, society, national and international understanding, it is called value education. Value education claims a vast field for its coverage to mould the behaviour and transform the right ways of action in day-to-day life activities. It is not the property of one nation, one religion, one climate and one philosophy. It surpasses all these areas. Therefore it is universal in character in as much as it relates to the welfare of human beings scattered throughout the world.

Socrates was right when he thought ‘knowledge is virtue’. All knowledge must end in the creation of virtues. Knowledge without viture is not only useless to society but it is disastrous to society also. Martin Luther King well thought of the glory of a nation in the following words: “The prosperity of a country depends not on the abundance of its revenues, not on the strength of its fortifications, nor on the beauty of its public buildings; but on its cultivated citizens, in its men of education, enlightenment and character. ” Among various objectives of value education, to produce men of character is chief among them.

The salient features of characterization are (i) Honesty (ii) Adventure (iii) Pleasantness (iv) Controlled and sensitive nature. Men of character have faith in their performances, therefore they speed up their work. According to Chilan (1987), Indian culture is superior because it is based on pity, self- control, honesty, honour, faith and universal brotherhood. If these values are included in the curriculum, emotional development can be achieved. Dr. Kothari (1964-66) tried to emphasise the value viz. , democracy, socialism, and equality of all religions.

He attached great importance to achieve skills through science and technology and also balanced development of human values. National Education Policy (1986) studied Indian background and came to the conclusion that religious education is not possible in India as India is a country with many religions. N. E. P. (1986) therefore advocated the concept of value education, giving extensive meaning to the term moral education. N. E. P. also tried to raise the levels congnitive, conative and affective domains. Conscious efforts to make changes through formal educational system should be done.

Knowledge, skill and emotion developed through the curriculum media transforms the right attitudes, interests and liking among students. Afterwards the constituent becomes the integral part of personality and thus creates value-based personality. Value education system that aims to enrich the level of our understanding and respect for such values and aims to bring us maturity of mind is called value-based education. Only a value- based education can give our youth the heart to understand the feelings of others and a constant awareness to take care not to hurt or insult the hearts of others by words and actions.

Education is a continuous process of refinement, research and realization, and must equip our youth to deal with the pressing problems of today and those which arise in future. As H. G. Wells put it: “Human history becomes more and more a race between education and catastrophe”. Unless we strengthen the education in its content and relevance and instill a sincere concern for human welfare, catastrophe cannot be avoided. Almost every one of the men and women now governing and managing national and international governments and institutions was once a student in a school, a college or a university.

Their performance today is clearly a reflection of the way they were educated. Had their education given them all that is required, their performance would be as we require. “To educate a man in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace to society”, said US President Theodore Roosevelt. And in the same vein, our own Nehruji declared: “If all is well with colleges and universities, all is well with the nation”. Only a value-based education can give our youth the altruistic and benevolent sense of living for others; as Swami Vivekananda said, “They alone live who live for others”.

We should always bear in mind that by helping others we help ourselves. By bringing prosperity to others we ourselves prosper. Conversely, we cannot give pain to another without giving pain to ourselves, and a loss caused to another is necessarily a loss to oneself. It is good to have money and the things it can buy, but in the process of acquiring money, we must always be concerned with the purity of the means. Otherwise, the wealth becomes ill gotten; it will buy a bed but not sleep; books but not wisdom; a house but not a home; medicine but not health; a ring but not a marriage.

The means you employ to achieve a result must be just, otherwise the result will ultimately backfire and result in loss and disappointment. As Woodrow Wilson, US President stated: “I would rather fail in a cause that will ultimately succeed than succeed in a cause that would ultimately fail”. When you snatch anything from the society without corresponding labour on your part, it is a sin. When you manipulate the circumstances to get from the society more than what is due, you are committing a sin. When you hurt a person or a system for your own monetary or egoistic gain, you are committing a sin.

As Mahatma Gandhi put it, “Wealth without work; pleasure without conscience; knowledge without character; commerce without morality; science without humanity; religion without sacrifice; and politics without principle will lead to sinful acts disturbing peace and happiness”. A ‘success’ achieved through immoral or unethical means is undoubtedly a step towards ultimate failure in achieving happiness in life. Parents, Teachers and Fellow Students All of us born and living in this world as the continuity of our parents.

If we analyze how we have grown up in this world and who has helped us most to live and realize our potential, we would find our parents and teachers have been the most important personalities in that process. Mother takes on a great responsibility physically and mentally to nurture the child and tolerates much inconvenience and pain. In gratitude for her years of invaluable help and care, one should always give due respect to mother. One’s father spends his time and labor, gives his knowledge and attention for years so as to develop his child into a great personality.

Hence, remembering the proverb, “There is no temple greater than mother and there is no mantra greater than the words of father”, one has to give respect to his parents and maintain good relations with them. Today, if we are able to read, write, think and act accordingly it has been made possible due to the education we had over about twenty years from various teachers, who took all efforts to teach us through their learning and experiences. Our education is due to our teachers who have labored patiently to explain various subjects in such a way that we can easily understand.

Every one of us has to always remember his teachers with gratitude and respect. A common problem for the newly admitted students in our educational institutions is the practice of “ragging” by senior students. Such merciless torture meted out to freshman students by the seniors is beneficial to none, but leaves all with unhappy memories. Both the seniors and the freshers they torture lose their peace of mind and the standard of education is corrupted and deteriorated. These painful incidents are stored in the inner depths of the heart and continue to influence one’s relationships throughout life.

Some students are so drastically affected that they forfeit their careers, prospects and even their mental balance. Good companionship among students is to be nurtured, as the collegiate years can be the time where lifelong loyalties and friendships are formed. Parents, management of institutions government and students must gather and discuss the ways to eradicate this menace and ensure that students are able to study peacefully and happily and achieve success in life. In the long run the success and achievements of every student is an asset to society. Eternal Values Every one of us is a valuable part of the society.

The peace that an individual realizes and enjoys in his heart is the basis for the overall peace of the society. For the sake of the society at large, every individual has to subject himself to certain responsibilities and duties. Since the action of an individual is bound to affect every other individual of the society, such action has to be confined by self-evolved order and discipline. When one expects others to do certain things and avoid doing certain other things, he must necessarily subject himself to the same set of do’s and don’ts; in other words these become the normative values followed by the whole society.

The cultural level of the society is determined by the set of values that each individual respects and retains as the standard of goodness. A society becomes good or bad based on the ethical values of individuals; ethical values give society its strength. To study law and yet behave lawlessly, to study civics and remain without social sense, to study the sciences and fail to imbibe a scientific outlook and temper – these are a travesty of education. Such an education does not impart dynamism to ideas; it does not result in force of character, richness of personality, and efficiency in life and action.

Just as physical strength and efficiency are the products of assimilated nutrients, one’s personality is the product of assimilation of character-molding ideas. If food is not prepared in such a way as to be digestible it becomes a poison and inimical to the body; similarly knowledge that is consumed without the ingredient of ethics becomes poisonous and inimical to oneself and society. Vanity, cunningness, egotism, miserliness, anger and greed are the poisonous results of such impure knowledge. Swami Vivekananda said: “Education is not the amount of information that you put in your brain to run riot there, undigested all your life.

We must have life building, man making, and character-making assimilation of ideas. If you have assimilated five ideas and made them your life and character, you have more education than any man who has got by heart a whole library”. Those values that have been and still are respected throughout all ages and places are called “eternal values”. An example would be the well-known Golden Rule: “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you”. To the extent that we follow these values our lives become successful and joyous.

An understanding of such values represents the level of our wisdom, and our ability to follow them is the measure of our maturity. Evolution of Value-Oriented Education Formation of character through education had its important place in Indian education system right from the Vedic period. Till at the end of Sixteenth century, the place of character formation through education was unquestionable. The medium of character formation through education was religious and therefore religious institutions tried to educate persons in character building during their period and sphere.

Inclusively after the arrival of Britishers in India, the aim of Indian education was changed. The aim of education to them was thus very limited. Some functional literacy including knowledge of subjects were introduced. In the Education Commission of 1882 only, moral education was recommended. In pre-independence and after independence, several commissions and committees recommended character education, religious education and moral education. According to National Education policy of 1986, moral and religious education were broadly defined and coined into value education. Distinction Between Value Education and Moral Education . The concept of value education is more extensive in comparison with the concept of moral education. Moral education is a constituent of value education. 2. Value education is developmental and it is based on expected values. On the contrary moral education is static and it is based on the ideals of society. 3. In value education, all round development of human is considered, whereas in moral education only ideals of individuals with its relation to society are considered. 4. Value education is scientifically based but it cannot be said with determination whether moral education is so based scientifically.

It is so because in moral education customs, faiths and traditions are reared and sometimes reflect the religion. 5. Value education consists all the component parts like individual, society, nation, environment and universe etc but in moral education only relation between individual and society is emphasized. In moral education each society fixes its own ideals and it is the endeavor of the society to keep these ideals stable. Therefore individual’s behaviour is restricted to individual and society. There is a great impact of religion on society and therefore religion is reflected in individual’s behaviour.

We preserve it in the name of customs and culture. But in value education the changes in human behaviour are studied in its new perspective and propagated through various media. Progressive Outlook of Value Education Generally, society is fond of preserving customs and these customs are sometimes treated as culture of the society. Many customs and traditions are based on religion. Religion is originated in consideration with the prevalent situation. Though idea about emancipation in many religions is the same, the ways in each religion are different.

Individual’s behaviour according to each religion therefore differs. Individual tries to safeguard the behaviour. We call it culture. The sanskars (experiences) are transmitted from one generation to other generation. These are the ideal behaviour patterns of society. As there are so many religions and different sects within a religion, individuals are free to decide their ideal behaviour within religion and within sect of each religion. If we try to mould the public through religious and moral education, there is possibility of religious and cultural struggle in a secular country like India.

Religious and moral education is possible in a country where only one religion is dominant. Society is dynamic and values that are created in political, economic and social fields are subject to changes in these fields. An individual and society exists by the assimilation of these values. Society thus becomes dynamic, e. g. the rising of twenty first century is the gift of science age. Society has to accept behaviour and thoughts in consonant with the age of science. This is the accepted behaviour of an individual. Example, the moon is not a God but a planet.

We proved it by scientific existence. The said behaviour is favourable to science age and also expected for individual progress and progress of society. We call such behaviour as value oriented behaviour, e. g. Small pox is a disease and it does not exist due to divine anger. A patient becomes normal by medical treatment. We therefore take preventive measures or if there are symptoms of disease we approach the doctor for medical treatment. This behaviour is expected from society. It is based on scientific outlook and favourable to a nation.

An individual therefore gets free from the disease and his individual progress becomes possible. In the aforesaid behaviour, four criteria are properly followed and therefore it is value-oriented behavior. Type of Value and its Nature Dr. Gawande (1994) had tried to investigate types of value and their areas. He noticed the following types of value and their areas: | |Type of value |Area of value | |1. |Human value |Human behaviour | |2. National or constitutional value |Constitutional rules | |3. |Social value |Rules about society | |4. |Vocational value |Ideals in various professions | |5. |Religious value |Ideals related to religions | |6. |Aesthetic value |Value in Arts and Literature |

Human value is like an axle of a wheel and other types of value are around it. Therefore if an individual is educated in human values, learning of all other values becomes leasier. While investigating human values through deductive and inductive method, Dr. Gawande found out the following seven human values. These are- (1) Truthfulness (2) Constructivity (3) Sacrifice (4) Sincerity (5) Self control (6) altruism (7) Sientific vision A. Definition of human value |1. |Truthfulness |- To have constant practice to approach the reality or truthfulness | |2. Constructivity |- To help for good undertaking. | |3. |Sacrifice |- To help without selfish motive. | |4. |Sincerity |-To work in stipulated time as assigned. | |5. |Self control |- To have control on individual’s mind for action. | |6. |Altruism |- To behave with others with love and to consider the well- being and happiness first. | |7. |Scientific vision |- To find out scientific reasons of a problem | B. National value or constitutional value:

Each country has its own independent constitution in which specific values are included. They are called national values or constitutional values, e. g. Following values are included in Indian Constitution. C. Social value: Each country preserves some values according to its culture and these values are preserved land protected. Dr. Chilan has fixed the following values of Indian society viz. Pity, Self Control, Universal brotherhood, honesty, respect and faith. D. Professional Value: Many professionals are in existence and each profession has got its own independent values e. g.

Following are the values of the teaching profession: Knowledge thrust, Sincerity in profession, Regularity and Faith. E. Religious Value: Each religion has got its independent status, principles and rules e. g. Following values are included in Boudha religion. Wisdom, Character and Pity Some values are common to all religions, whereas some values are attached to as particular religion only and they are the specialties of that particular religion. F. Aesthetic Value: Literature and Arts (painting, carving, drawing etc. ) have got their fixed criteria and rules. They are investigated and are fixed.

Evan Smith (1970) Parents and society try to fix certain values on children. Learning experiences and social interaction offer an outlook and attitudes of children are transformed accordingly. If curriculum is outlined likewise and based on values, particular values are bound to reflect through learning process. According to Evan Smith- 1. Value based teacher can only fix certain values. As the teacher so the values. 2. Educational system is a by-product of social and cultural advancement. Both formal and non-formal agencies are equally responsible to create necessary values for the development of personality of students.

Components of Value Education 1) Moral Education 2) Environmental Education 3) Population Education 4) Human rights and duties 5) Health Education 6) Indian Culture 7) Physical Education 8) Yoga Education 9) History of Indian freedom movement. The above mentioned component parts should be included in curriculum and it should be so framed to give justice to various learning experiences through the media of subject units. Value education thus will not be treated as an independent subject in curriculum but it will lead to integrated development through effective value based curriculum. [pic]

Personal Development Introduction The development of one’s personality, done in the right manner, is a challenging and rewarding task for every individual, particularly for the energetic youth who can gain much from it. It is challenging in that it demands hard, methodical labour, perseverance and careful attention. And it is rewarding since no effort in this direction goes in vain. In fact, every effort brings success and satisfaction proportionate to the attempt. Moreover, it is every person’s duty to work towards it, since personality development is necessary for success in any field.

What Is Personality? According to the Cambridge International Dictionary of English, ‘Your personality is the type of person you are, which is shown by the way you behave, feel and think. ’ Personality, according to the Long man Dictionary of Contemporary English, is the ‘whole nature or character of a person. ’ How a person behaves, feels and thinks; how he conducts himself in a given set of circumstances is largely determined by the state of his mind. Mere external appearance or a person’s speech or mannerisms are only fringes of one’s personality.

They do not reflect the real personality. Personality development in the real sense refers to deeper levels of a person. So a study of our personality should start from a clear grasp of the nature of our mind, and how it functions. Necessity to know our mind: We intend to do many things – make resolutions to cultivate good habits, to kick certain bad habits, to study with concentration, to do something with a concentrated mind. Very often our mind rebels, forcing us to beat a retreat from our efforts in implementing our resolutions.

A book is open before us, and our eyes are open. But the mind has started wandering, thinking about some past events or some future plans. The same thing happens when we sit for a few minutes trying to pray or think of a divine name or form. Says Swami Vivekananda: ‘Free! We, who cannot for a moment govern our minds on a subject, focus it on a point to the exclusion of everything else for a moment! Yet we call ourselves free. Think of it! ” The fourfold functions of the mind: The human mind has four basic functions.

This can be illustrated by an example: suppose I meet a person whom I had met somewhere, say, about ten years before. I try to recollect when and where I met him and who he is. From the inner recesses of my mind there begins a process of scanning, as it were, to check if there are any events stored there connected with the person. Suddenly I am able to recognize the person as so and so and finally say ‘he is the same person I met in such and such a place,’ etc. I now have a firm knowledge about the person. Analyzing the above example, we are able to discern four functions of the mind: ) Memory The storehouse of memory and impressions of our past experiences presents various possibilities before the mind. This storehouse is called chitta. It is in this storehouse that the impressions of our thoughts and actions-good and bad – are stored. The sum total of these impressions determine our character. This chitta, again, is what is known as our subconscious mind. 2) Deliberation and Conceptualization: Not yet sure, the mind examines the many options presented before it. It deliberates on several things. This faculty of the mind is called manas.

Imagination and formation of concepts are also functions of the manas. 3) Determination and Decision-making: Buddhi is the faculty responsible for decision-making. It has the capacity to judge the pros and cons of things and find what is more desirable. It is also the discriminative faculty in a person, which enables him to discriminate between the real and the unreal, between what is to be done and what is to be avoided, what is morally right and what is wrong. It is also the seat of will power so essential for personality development and hence this aspect of the mind concerns us the most. ) I’ Consciousness: Appropriating to oneself all physical and mental activities eg, ‘I eat’, ‘I see’, ‘I talk’, ‘I think’, ‘I am confused’, etc. , is called ahamkara or ‘I’ consciousness. As long as the ‘I’ identifies itself with the undisciplined body-mind complex, human life is dictated by events and circumstances of the world; we become happy with pleasurable events, and miserable with adverse circumstances. More the mind gets refined and disciplined, more does one get to know the real source of ‘I’ consciousness.

Correspondingly, a person becomes more balanced and equipoise in his daily life. Such a person is no longer swayed by any event or circumstances of life. These four aspects of the mind, viz manas, buddhi, chitta and ahamkara, are not watertight compartments. It is the same mind called by different names based on its functions. More about the mind: The Katha Upaninshad describes human personality with the help of a chariot allegory. Our ‘I’ is represented by the master of the chariot; the body is the chariot and the buddhi the charioteer.

The manas is represented by the reins to which are yoked the horses representing the sense organs- ears, skin, eyes, tongue and nose- which are the five windows in a human being that give him or her the knowledge of objects in the world. The sense objects represent the road on which the chariot travels. The human being who identifies himself or herself with this body- mind system is said to be the enjoyer of objects or the fruits of actions. If the horses are not woken and if the charioteer is asleep, the chariot cannot reach its destination. It can even overturn and spell the death of the master.

Similarly, if the sense organs are not disciplined, and if the power of discrimination lies dormant, one cannot reach the goal of human life. On the other hand, if the horses are woken and the charioteer is wide-awake, the chariot reaches its destination. Even so, if the buddhi is wide awake, and if the sensory system together with the mind is disciplined and controlled, a human being can reach the goal of his life. What is that goal? We will come to it shortly. Another important activity of the mind that concerns personality development is our emotions.

More the emotions are under control, healthier becomes one’s personality. Emotions can be broadly classified into two types, viz attraction and repulsion. Love, admiration, aspiration, sympathy, joy, veneration, pride and the like indicate attraction. Hate, anger, fear, sorrow, jealousy, disgust, shame, etc are of the nature of repulsion. As long as one is entangled with the undisciplined mind, one’s personality does not really develop. Buddhi, the charioteer, serves as an effective instrument of self-development by controlling the emotions and raising the higher self from the hold of the lower mind. Activities

I 1. Make a list of 5 occasions each when you have and have not considered help or priority to individuals of your opposite gender. 2. List 5 ways by which you will help the physically challenged. 3. Describe in 200 words any experience you have had with an intellectually challenged individual. II Record as indicated in the table |S. No |Criteria/Person |Explain Respect given to |Reason |Not |Reason |Vow | | | | | |respected | | | |1. Age | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |2 |Experience | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |3. Maturity | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |4. |Family members | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |5. Neighbours | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |6. |Co-workers | | | | | | Character formation towards positive Personality:

There are certain values that are extremely necessary for life, but which are generally ignored by the modern system of education. Today’s education lays emphasis on accumulation of factual knowledge, but fails to mould the character of the youth. Our young people therefore have failed to acquire the means by which they can make themselves spiritually strong, courageous, bold and upright. The intellect gets sharpened by means of studies. Should there not be similar training for the cultivation and control of our minds and hearts?

Our intelligensia does not seem to have arrived at a constructive plan for the training of character as yet. The proverb goes, “A single good act is worth a ton of advice. ” Many enriching experiences and incidents in successful lives are not only of interest and significance, but also help in the moulding of character. What is character? Every action and thought of ours leaves an impression in our mind. These impressions determine how we respond to a given situation.

The sum total of all our impressions is what determines our character. The past has determined the present. Even so the present- our present thoughts and actions – will shape our future. This is a key principle governing personality development. “ A nation may conquer the waves, control the elements, develop the utilitarian problems of life seemingly to the utmost limits, and yet not realize that in the individual, the highest type of civilization is found in him who has learned to conquer self”. This universe is simply a gymnasium in which the soul is taking exercise; and after these exercises we become Gods. So the value of everything is to be decided by how far it is a manifestation of God. Civilization is the manifestation of that divinity in man”. The divine core of our personality is covered, as it were, by five dimensions: • Physical dimension consisting of our body and senses. • Energy dimension which performs digestion of food, circulation of blood, respiration and other activities in the body.

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