Sociology Final– Reading + Proposition Review

Sociology Final– Reading + Proposition Review

“The sociological eye.” Collins
1 sentence summary: Sociology lets one examine all sorts of behavior, no matter how quotidian or mundane, from a science-y viewpoint that sort of makes it interesting to examine.
Which principle: all
“The wider circle of friends in adolescence.” Giordano
1 sentence summary: Messages examined in several yearbooks changed based on the social closeness of the one writing the message and the owner of the yearbook (closer friends used inside language, such as nicknames, while not-so close friends used more broad language).
Which principle: 9. Communication: Intimacy breeds insider codes of expression
“The promise of sociology.” Mills
1 sentence summary: One can use his or her sociological imagination to see the relationship between history at large, and one’s personal individual biography. Everyone influences the shaping of history in some way, while being shaped by society and historical influences. there is a relationship between the most intimate features of a man and what is happening in the larger world, and the sociological imagination can help see that.
Which principle: 1? all social behavior can be analyzed sociologically-train your social eye.
“What the census taught me about myself.” Sabo
1 sentence summary: The author lived in two different communities: one in Irvine, California and the other which was in Littleton, Colorado. The prominent thing about Irvine was although it was racially diverse, she felt below average (because of this she felt that she was always had to prove to others about herself) but in Colorado…it was predominantly white and it was here that she felt more superior than her peers. It was then where she felt that she had nothing to prove to them. AKA Where you live/your community/your culture can affect how you feel about yourself and your position in society.
Which principle: 7 -social attention (favorable attention increases with social superiority) 8- social exclusion ( exclusion increases with social inferiority)
“The saints and the roughnecks.” Chambliss
1 sentence summary: With the same rate of delinquency, the Saints (upper-middle class boys) were considered to be “good” kids by the public, “better” than the lower-class Roughnecks, who were persecuted more by the police and the community.
Which principal: I think it could be either Social Attention: Favorable attention increases with social superiority (i.e., high status) [[Saints]] or social Exclusion: Exclusion increases with social inferiority (low status) [[Roughnecks]]
“Evaluation.” In Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America. Ehrenreich
1 sentence summary: Ehrenreich assumed multiple low-paying jobs to see how difficult it truly was for the poor to get by in the USA; struggled to pay for everyday necessities (esp. rent) and found that no job was truly ‘unskilled labor’ AKA it truly is difficult for Americans trying to live off of minimum wage jobs to scrape by an existence for themselves, much less an entire family.
Which principal: 6. Social Problems – wealth/income inequality breeds social problems in industrial societies
“The service heart.” Coniff

1 sentence summary: We tend to serve the rich with great loyalty even though our efforts are not fully appreciated because we feel a sense of security from their social status.

Which principal: 7-Social Attention: Favorable attention increases with social superiority (i.e., high status)

The United States of inequality.” Noah
1 sentence summary:. wealth/income inequality grew during the agrarian/early industrial era, declined, and now in the US, is growing again. since 1979, has been known as the “great divergence” in income inequality. the rich keep getting richer.
which principal? 1 – Inequality of wealth grew, declined, and in US, has grown again
6- social problems-in industrial societies, inequality breeds a host of social problems
“The Spirit Level: Why More Equal Societies Almost Always Do Better” Wilkinson & Pickett
1 sentence summary: among industrial societies, inequality causes social problems.
Which principal: 6. Social Problems: In industrial societies, inequality breeds a host of social problems
“The scarcity fallacy.” Scanlan
1 sentence summary: The reason people are still hungry today isn’t that there’s a lack (or scarcity) of food; it’s that there’s a lack of accessible (or affordable) food that causes hunger.
Which principal: 6. Social problems – inequality breeds problems
“Political segregation: the big sort.” Anonymous
1 sentence summary: People tend to cluster geographically with those who share similar political views, which leads to more extreme beliefs. For example, Athens is super-liberal for being in the Deep South.
Which principal: Consensus: 10-Social closeness breeds consensus
“Spirituals, jazz, blues, and soul music: the role of elaborated and restricted codes in the maintenance of social solidarity.” Bergesen
1 sentence summary: Greater intimacy (or group solidarity) breeds restricted musical languages, while less intimacy breeds elaborated musical languages.
Which principal: Communication: Intimacy breeds insider codes of expression
“Religious choice: conversion and reaffiliation.” Stark & Finke
1 sentence summary: People will convert to a new religion (or reaffiliate to a different branch of their current religion) when they stand to gain culture-capital (like when a non-Catholic converts to Catholicism in a Catholic-dominated area [like the Vatican City]), social capital (a man might convert to his wife’s religion when they get married to make her family happy if his own family doesn’t particularly care about his religious choice) and/or religious capital (one’s actual belief in a religion).
Which principal: Consensus: Social closeness breeds consensus
“Life without father: what happens to the children?” Mclanahan & Schwartz
1 sentence summary: When a child’s parents get divorced, the children are negatively impacted; more at risk for economic deprivation, poor parenting, lack of social support — even if parents remarry – kids need their biological father. However, families with widowed single parents typically don’t fare as poorly as those with divorced parents – (usually) no negative stigma or blame can be thrown on a father for dying.
Which principal: 7./8. Social Attention/Social Exclusion – divorce lowers a family’s social status and decreases the favorable attention they receive, resulting in negative effects on the children of that family
“Pages 29-32 and 48-56 in Going Solo: The Extraordinary Rise and Surprising Appeal of Living Alone” Klinenberg
1 sentence summary: Living alone has become increasingly popular; in fact, it’s seen as a rite of passage into adulthood. Living alone yields a second adolescence; more time to grow up with lots of freedom.
Which principal:3. local cultures have declined and an increasingly individualistic global culture is continuing to grow. CAN SOMEONE TELL ME IF THIS ONE IS NEEDED? Not 100% sure. He said to only look at the readings that addressed social behavior, not evolution, and Prop 3 is a social evolution proposition. Maybe make note of it just in case?
“McDonald’s in Hong Kong.” Watson
1 sentence summary: McDonald’s even in China are becoming more and more like those in the United States. Although it cases, it had to assimilate itself or merge itself within the chinese culture.
Which principal: Local cultures are decreasing & global individualistic culture is emerging. Isn’t this social evolution, then? Yep
“The mark of a criminal record.” Devah Pager
1 sentence summary: The experiment that the author conducted shows that Black people with criminal records are much harder to find a job than their White counterparts.
Which principal: 6 Social Problems: In industrial societies, inequality breeds a host of social problems –unemployment Could this be proposition 8? Exclusion increases with social inferiority
“Breaking the last taboo: interracial marriage in America.” Qian
1 sentence summary: interracial marriage is more common (still rare, though). less commitment comes out of interracial dating..proximity and education is a big factor. more diverse neighborhoods see more interracial couples. it all depends on proximity for an interracial increase, and with the rise of more segregated immigrant neighborhoods, we could see less interracial couples.
Which principal: 2 – Closeness to insiders has increased, then decreased. Closeness to outsiders has decreased then increased, 10-social proximity breeds consensus. Could this also be prop 8: exclusion increases with social inferiority? I think proposition 8 makes sense for this one
“Abiding faith.” Chaves
1 sentence summary: in US, most people are spiritual. this trend has persisted through time because problems have always persisted. and religion gives sense of identity and group bond. however, church membership has declined. Can anyone explain this a little more clearly?
Which principal: could it be 4? social power-the organizational capacity of humans has vastly increased? or maybe 3? local cultures (or in this case, religion) has declined and global culture (widespread spirituality) -increasingly individualistic- has grown? (Prop 3)
“Small change: why the revolution will not be tweeted.” Gladwell
1 sentence summary: It shared how individuals who tweet about their stance on a particular issue are not as willing to protest about their issue such as the prime example of Martin Luther King Jr’s “March on Washington.” Another issue presented within the article was the people that you get to protest alongside of you are mostly a close companionship and not a distant stranger.
Which principal: 2. – Closeness to insiders has increased then decreased. Closeness to outsiders has decreased then increased Could it be Prop 10: social closeness breeds consensus? If people who protest tend to be close, I feel like prop 10 might work (AND it’s actually a social behavior prop, which is what we’re meant to be looking for)
“The McDonaldization of society.” Ritzer
1 sentence summary: More and more, we are relying on how McDonald’s has and is running their business in order to produce more quantity instead of quality products. Their main goals are running on the different aspects of: efficiency, predictability, calculability (quantity over quality), control, substitution of nonhuman technology, and irrationality of rationality.
Which principal: 4-social power-the organizational capacity of humans has vastly increased. I’m not sure that’s right. Efficiency doesn’t necessarily equal power. I actually can’t find any proposition that truly fits this reading.
“Political expansion as an expression of the principle of competitive exclusion.” Carneiro
1 sentence summary: Polities have become smaller in number and larger in size because they compete for resources through war (competitive exclusion)
Which principal: 3 Local cultures have declined; global culture – increasingly individualistic – continues to grow That’s social evolution, not social behavior.
“The organizational dimension.” Cooney
1 sentence summary: People who hold higher position such as like a president for example, which face minimum to no punishment at all for killing someone rather than a citizen who will face the maximum punishment available to be given to them. This is seen more in third world countries.
Which principal: social attention and social exclusion. and possibly 5? -severity of punishments has grown, declined, and in the US grown again?
Inequality of wealth– Evolution
Inequality of wealth grew, declined, and in U.S., has grown again
Closeness– Evolution
Closeness to insiders has increased (w/agriculture) and decreased (w/industry); closeness to outsiders decreased and then increased
Cultures– Evolution
Local cultures have declined; global culture – increasingly individualistic – continues to grow
Social power– Evolution
Organizational capacity of humans – has vastly increased
Punishments– Evolution
The severity of punishments grew, declined, and in US has grown again
Social problems– Behavior
In industrial societies, inequality breeds a host of social problems
Social attention– Behavior
Favorable attention increases with social superiority (i.e., high status)
Social exclusion– Behavior
Exclusion increases with social inferiority
Communication– Behavior
Intimacy breeds insider codes of expression
Consensus– Behavior
Social closeness breeds consensus
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