Steger: Globalization A Very Short Introduction

Steger: Globalization A Very Short Introduction

Biodiversity
The variety of life in the world or in a particular habitat or ecosystem. The value is that we as humans are so dependent on it as far as plants, animal species, agriculture, etc. One measure to safeguard it is the creation of hundreds of “gene banks” in order to preserve “back-up copies” of different products in order to prevent extinction; we can also limit consumption of resources/manage them in a renewable, sustainable manner. The ecosystem is all so dependent on one another that if some part disappears, it damages our entire ecosystem; boosts ecosystem’s stability; regulates chemistry of our air and water. The world is an interconnected system.
Ideology
A system of beliefs or theories, usually political or economic, held by an individual or a group; shape our social norms, values, and behaviors.
Globalization from above
brings about hegemonic elites, and economic and cultural hegemony; global north; technology contributes; corporate globalization/TNCs with corporate values (market globalism and neoliberalism; shaping an ideology of consumerism)
Globalization from below
civil society organizations (non-profits); challenges the market globalism from above; (idealizes people having the power as opposed to corporate) global south in developing countries
Globalism
a national policy of treating the whole world as a proper sphere for political influence; ideological lenses that support values of the world.
Deterministic Language
the idea that language and its structures limit and determine human knowledge or thought, as well as thought processes such as categorization, memory, and perception; people speaking with deterministic language make their words seem inevitable and natural; depoliticizes (separating politics; becomes self-fulfilling prophecy) neoliberalism
Disparity
A great difference
Global Marshall Plan
a plan made by Al Gore; views itself as an integrative organizational platform for a “world in balance”; forgives Third World debt and (after the war, attempted to rebuild Western Europe and Japan; today, it calls for stable population, eliminating poverty, green energy to restructure economy, improve education, etc.)
World Social Forum (WSF)
an annual meeting of civil society organizations (fight to resist GMOs; environmental groups; economic justice groups; etc…grass roots organizing= globalization from below is what is bringing these groups together), first held in Brazil which offers a self-conscious effort to develop an alternative future through the championing of counter-hegemonic globalization; attempts to build the society and economy by means different than the dominating forces (oppose corporate globalization; pollution, etc.)
Zapatista
a member or supporter of a Mexican revolutionary force working for social and agrarian reforms, which launched a popular uprising in the state of Chiapas in 1994; the resistance uprising occurred when NAFTA went into effect because they wanted their rights to be protected
Alternative global visions
differing viewpoints on the past, present, and future of the world; ways of thinking about the world are different than the dominant corporate discourse (another world is possible)
Self-regulating, unfettered markets
A free, self-controlled market that functions without governmental intervention; capitalism is not regulated by the government (false notion as the government puts these structures into place)
Progressive/left
a person advocating or implementing social reform (a change that benefits society) or new, liberal ideas; often inclusive (include everyone)
Free-market norms
an economic system in which prices are determined by unrestricted competition between privately owned businesses; constraints that keep us in the consumerist (underlying value) ideology where the individual prevails over the collective
Reactionary politics
a person who holds political views that favor a return to the status quo ante, the previous political state of society, which possessed characteristics (discipline, respect for authority, etc.) that he or she thinks are negatively absent from the contemporary status quo of a society; people that want to go back to the previous society
Solidarity
unity or agreement of feeling or action, especially among individuals with a common interest; mutual support within a group.
Distributive justice
concerns the nature of a socially just dispersal of goods in a society; equal opportunity to resources/basic needs in order to obtain global well-being
Fundamentalist values
believe that the statements in the Bible/sacred text (Quran, etc.) are literally true; often argue against the theory of evolution; intolerant of other ideas/non-cosmopolitan view point (if you disagree with their values, you are wrong and excluded)
Civic engagement
individual and collective actions designed to identify and address issues of public concern; getting involved
Globalization
applies to a set of social processes that appear to transform our present social condition of conventional nationality into one of globality (process, condition, force, age)
Globality
Signifies a social condition characterized by a tight global economic, political, cultural, and environmental interconnections and flows that make most of the currently exiting borders and boundaries irrelevant
Global imaginary
A concept referring to people’s growing consciousness of global connectivity
Globalization
the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa
FIFA (International Federation of Football Association)
Organized the football world cup in 1930
contested concept
the idea that a particular concept doesn’t have an agreed, fixed definition
dichotomy
a division into 2 especially mutually exclusive or contradictory groups or entities
transnational
extending or operating across national boundaries
TNC (Transnational corporations)
incorporated or unincorporated enterprises comprising parent enterprises and their foreign affiliates, any corporation that is registered/operates in multiple countries at once
glocal
reflecting/characterized by both local and global considerations
static condition
little to no change
infrastructure
the basic, underlying framework or features of a system or organization
social process
the means by which culture and social organizations change or are preserved
social institutions
ex: family; a system of behavioral and relationship patterns that are densely interwoven and enduring, and function across an entire society; they order and structure the behavior of individuals by means of their normative character
social network
social structure made up of social actors (individuals or organizations) and a set of dyadic ties between them
contested concept
not everyone agrees on an idea; agree to disagree. not one monolithic reality.
dichotomy
division of two things that are entirely different; mutually exclusive
transnational
operating across nations
TNC (Transnational Corporations)
corporation that is registered/operates in multiple countries at once
glocal
connections between global and local considerations
FIFA (International Federation of Football Association)
biggest sports association in the world; world cup; global institution that regulates international soccer.
infrastructure
the basic, underlying framework or features of a system or organizations
social institution
invisible social structure that orders the behavior of individuals by their normative behavior
global imaginary
people’s growing consciousness of global connectivity (awareness, imagination, etc.)
globality
a social condition (ex: where clothing is made, like in China..economic status leads to hard labor in order to earn money); ability to spread produce/ideas globally despite borders of countries (ex: subsidies: sell for less than buying price)
globalization
the expansion and intensification of social relations and consciousness across world time and world space (improving networks-especially social), globally (technology, media, etc.)
static condition
something that has little to no change
dynamic processes
conditions that are constantly changing (ex: age, education, knowledge, technology); the world is ________
social processes
pattern of growth/change in society over the years (this is why history is documented; trends); how things are affected over time
social network
media, family, friends, peers, etc. Building a social “capital”: who you know and how you use it
nexus
linking two or more things; a crossroad; allows marginal (different) people to connect for social change to occur
global-local nexus
an apparatus is linked globally and locally; it is not separately distinguished.
ethnocentrism
where only the individual’s group/ideas are tolerated; differences will not be accepted; narrow minded and refusing to change.
cosmopolitan democracy
a political theory which explores the application of norms and values of democracy at the transnational and global sphere; a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives that are familiar with and at ease in many different countries and culture; justice globalism; socially tolerant of differences; interested in all diversity; open to change.
Interdependence
a mutual dependence between two separate things
innovation
introduction of new things/methods
connectivity
the state/extent of being connected/interconnected
civil society
society considered as a community of citizens linked by common interests and collective activity
time-space compression
any phenomena that alters the qualities of and relationship between space and time (ex: TV, photos, etc.)
Eurocentric perspective
referring to European exceptionalism; a worldview centered on Western civilization, as it had developed during the height of the European colonial empires since the Early Modern period
civil-society associations
organizations related to civil societies; non-governmental (ex: Black Lives Matter)
divergence
the process of dividing/separation
convergence
the process of unifying
stratified society
a system in which society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy
patriarchal social structure
a social system in which males hold primary power, predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege, and control of property
bureaucracy
a system of government in which most of the important decisions are made by state officials rather than by elected representatives
Mesopotamia
an ancient region of Southwest Asia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in modern-day Iraq (between the Fertile Crescent); invention of agriculture
Enlightenment (Age of)
An era from the 1620s-1780s in which cultural and intellectual forces in Western Europe emphasized reason, analysis, and individualism rather than traditional lines of authority (to give someone greater knowledge); focused on individual (everyone is equal as long as they are white men with property); ideological transformation that began to focus on science rather than myth or ideas
modernity
relating to the present or recent times as opposed to the remote past-began in 1750; early modernity in 1500s (rise of the arts)
demographic change
dynamics in the quantifiable statistics of a given population (demographics= age, gender, ethnicity, mobility, language, employment, etc.); shift in population
Global North and South
North= more developed (North America, Western Europe, and developed parts of East Asia); South= less developed (Africa, Latin America, developing Asia, including Middle East)
colonialism
the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploring it economically
capitalism
an economic and political system in which a country’s trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state
socialism
a political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole
bourgeoisie
the middle class, typically with a reference to, its perceived materialistic values or conventional attitudes
social movement
a group of diffusely organized people/organizations striving toward a common goal relating to human society or social change
labor movement
an organized effort on the part of workers to improve their economic and social status by united action through the medium of labor unions
MAD (mutually assured destruction)
a doctrine of military strategy and national security policy in which a full-scale use of high yield weapons of mass destruction by two or more opposing sides would cause complete annihilation of both the attacker and the defender
Class solidarity
unity which produces/is based on unities of interests, objectives, standards, and sympathies. It refers to the ties in a society that bind people together as one (awareness, SES, wages, etc.)
Cold War
a state of political hostility between countries characterized by threats, propaganda, and other measures short of open warfare (a constant nonviolent state of hostility between the Soviet Union and the US) capitalism vs. socialism (authoritarian)
disparities in wealth and well-being
Large imbalances/differences in economics, health, comfort, etc.
genocide
deliberate killing of a large group of people, especially those of a specific ethnic group/nation
cosmopolitan
some idea/knowledge with no judgement; familiar with and at ease in many different countries and cultures; at home all over the world
decolonization
freeing a country from being dependent on another country (ex: USA)
TNC (transnational corporation)
corporation that is registered/operates in multiple countries at once
Bretton Woods
1944; rebuild world; system of monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the world’s major industrial states in the mid-20th century; gold exchange standard
Bretton Woods Agreement
developed at the UN Monetary and Financial conference held in Bretton Woods, New Hampshirt, from July 1st-July 22nd, 1944
IMF (International Monetary Fund)
created to administer the International monetary system; international organization created for the purpose of standardizing global financial relations and exchange rates; D.C; sets price of currency; short-term loans to rebuild Europe, etc.
WB (World Bank)
an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programs; long-term loans for reconstructing countries
GATT/WTO (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organization)
GATT was established in 1947 as a global trade organization charged with fashioning and enforcing multilateral trade agreements; in 1995, WTO was founded as the successor organization to GATT. By the late 1990’s, the WTO had become the focal point of intense public controversy over the design and effects of economic globalization; no tariffs on market
OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)
attempted to fix oil supply issue in 1971; helped to avoid oil price fluctuation and attempted to create cheap fossil fuels; cartel that aims to manage the supply of oil in an effort to set the price of oil on the world market, in order to avoid fluctuations that might affect the economies of both producing and purchasing countries
self-regulating markets
adjusting, ruling, or governing itself with outside interference; operating or functioning without externally imposed controls or regulations (but the people’s demand)
keynesianism
1930s by Johne Maynard Keynes; an economic theory of total spending in the economy and its effects on output and inflation; some government regulation
tariffs
taxes or duties to be paid on a particular class of imports or exports; protects products while they’re being developed
free trade
international trade left to its’ natural course without tariffs, quotas, or other restrictions
trade liberalization
the removal or reduction of restrictions or barriers on the free exchange of goods between the nations; includes removal or tariffs and non-tariff obstacles
comparative advantages
the ability of an individual, or group to carry out a particular economic activity (such as making a product) more efficiently than another activity; refining headstart; colonized “new world”; extracted raw materials lie cotton and manufactured it
Trickle-Down economics
an economic idea which states that decreasing marginal and capital gains tax rates-especially for corporations, investors, and entrepreneurs-can stimulate production in the overall economy; emerged with neoliberalism (rich “trickles down” to poor to reduce taxes, pass down jobs, etc.)
increased inequality
widening gap between social classes, countries, etc. (everyone!) wealthy is about 1% of the population
deregulation
the reduction/elimination of governmental power in a particular industry, usually enacted to create more competition within the industry
Washington Consensus
refers to a set of broadly free market economic ideas, supported by prominent economists and international organizations, such as the IMF, the WB, the EU, and the US (*neoliberalism)
Structural adjustment programs (SAPs)
self-regulating; a package of economic and institutional measure designed to solve macroeconomic problems in developing countries by reducing government intervention in the economy, correcting the borrowing country’s deficits and opening the country’s economy to the global market
globalization from above
brings about the hegemonic elites, and economic elites, and economic and cultural hegemony multinational corporations creating bourgeoisie elites who bring cars, music, and a different way of life into developing countries
corporate mobility
the trend toward a shift in work habits, with more employees working out of the office and using mobile devices and cloud services to perform business tasks
securities
the state of being free from danger or threat
GFC (Global Financial Crisis)
a worldwide period of economic difficulty experienced by markets and consumers; a difficulty experienced by markets and consumers; a difficult business environment t succeed in since potential consumers tend to reduce their purchases of goods and services until the economic situation improves
the great recession
the sharp decline in economic activity during the late 2000s, which is generally considered the largest downturn since the Great Depression
social welfare
a system is a program that provides assistance to needy individuals and families; types and amount of welfare available to individuals and families vary for country, state, or region
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