Yip’s Model

Yip’s Model

DIAGNOSING INDUSTRY GLOBALIZATION POTENTIAL (Excerpts from G. Yip’s Total Global Strategy) Industry globalization drivers are the underlying conditions in each industry that create the potential for using global strategy. Here we will examine each driver in more depth. To achieve the benefits of globalization, the managers of a worldwide business need to recognize when industry conditions provide the opportunity to use global strategy levers. These industry conditions can be grouped in four categories of globalization drivers: market, cost, government, and competitive.

Each key industry globalization driver affects the potential use of global strategy levers (global market participation, global products and services, global location of activities, global marketing, and global competitive moves). The drivers are as follows (See Figure 1): Market Globalization Drivers 1. Common customer needs 2. Global customers 3. Global channels 4. Transferable marketing 5. Lead countries Cost Globalization Drivers 6. Economies of Scale 7. Steep Experience Curve 8. Country Comparative Advantages 9. Decreasing transportation costs 10. Decreasing communication costs Government Globalization Drivers 1. Favorable trade policies 12. Compatible technical standards 13. Common marketing regulations 14. Government-owned competitors and customers 15. Host government concerns Competitive Globalization Drivers 16. High exports and imports 17. Competitors from different continents 18. Interdependence of countries 19. Competitors globalized Industry globalization drivers relate to, but are different from, the industry competitive forces identified by Michael E. Porter; threat of entry, rivalry among existing firms, pressure from substitute products or services, bargaining power of suppliers, and bargaining power of buyers. i] In most cases, but not always, increases in industry globalization will increase the strength of competitive forces. Particularly for the threat of new entrants and rivalry among existing firms, increased industry globalization heightens competition by widening its geographic scope. The specific effects on these two competitive forces vary in interesting ways depending on the specific industry globalization driver, and so will be addressed shortly for each of the drivers. Increased industry globalization also increases the pressure from substitutes by increasing the geographic scope of where these substitutes might come from.

This effect is fairly straightforward and consistent, and so need not be discussed for individual industry globalization drivers. Last, the effects of industry globalization on the power of suppliers and the power of buyers can be positive in some cases and negative in others. In particular, the globalization of customers themselves (the “global customer” driver) increases their bargaining power relative to industry competitors, while the globalization of competitors the (the “competitors globalizer” driver) reduces the bargaining power of customers.

Analogous effects apply the bargaining power of suppliers. Globalization can also change the fundamental strategy required for managing competitive forces. In Competitive Strategy, published in 1980, Porter, in effect, recommends that companies seek to compete in markets with weak competitors and weak customers. [? ] In The Competitive Advantage of Nations, published in 1990, Porter argues instead for participating in national markets with the strongest rivals and most demanding customers, in order to build international competitiveness. [? The difference between his two positions is explainable by the difference between a closed, domestic industry, and an open, globalized industry. In a closed, domestic industry, a company accustomed to weak competitors and undemanding customers has little to fear-there is no source of new competitors that might grow strong in more demanding competitive arenas. In an open, globalized industry, such newly strong competitors abound. That is why it is important to understand how industry globalization drivers affect the threat of entry and rivalry among existing competitors.

MARKET GLOBALIZATION DRIVERS Market globalization drivers-common customer needs, global customers, global channels, transferable marketing, and lead countries-depend on the nature of customer behavior and the structure of channels of distribution. These drivers affect the use of all five global strategy levers. As illustrated in Exhibit 2-1, different industries have different levels of market globalization drivers. These comparative rankings are approximate only and will also change with time. Common Customer Needs

Common customer needs represent the extent to which customers in different countries have the same needs in the product or service category (or the group of products and services) that defines an industry. Many factors affect whether customer needs are similar in different countries. These factors include whether differences in economic development, climate, physical environment, and culture affect needs in the particular product or service category as well as whether the countries are at the same stage of the product life cycle. ? ] Common customer needs particularly affect the opportunity to use the global strategy levers of global market participation, global products and services, and global competitive moves. Common needs make it easier to participate in major markets because a few product varieties can serve many markets. Thus few different product offerings need to be developed and supported. Japanese automotive companies have been particularly successful at exploiting common needs when they first entered world automotive markets.

Toyota, Nissan, and Honda chose to focus on fundamental needs common to all countries-such as reliability and economy-rather than to focus on peripheral differences-such as styling. The underlying commonality of needs meant that their highly standardized global products were quite acceptable in most countries. Common needs also allow the sequenced invasion of markets with highly standardized products-again, a successful approach of many Japanese companies in different industries. Even in food and beverages, where national taste seems dominant,[? the speed of change of eating habits has been one of the most dramatic events of the postwar decades, spurred primarily by travel, tourism and immigration. In only a few years, Japanese were converted to eating donuts, gradually with more cinnamon, until they are now the same recipe as the American donut, but a little smaller to fit the Japanese hand. [? ] The conservative British are increasingly abandoning their warm “pint of bitter” beer for cold American-and-European-style lager.

Heineken has successful created a globally standardized beer that its adherents buy all over the world. Americans now drink more and more French mineral water. According to executives in a leading multinational food and beverage concern, it seems to be modern products without a tradition (or at least without a tradition in most countries) that can most easily be globalized. Recent examples of such products include pizza and yogurt. Common customer needs make entrants more dangerous by reducing the number of products or services that they need to develop for different countries.

Success in one country with a global product can be used as a springboard for entering other countries. Thus, it is not surprising that Japanese entrants have been most successful in the last 20 years in markets with fairly common customer needs-electronic and automotive products. The Japanese are now turning to financial services. The common need of corporations around the world for sources of financing from debt or equity has encouraged the Japanese big four brokers-Yamichi, Nomura, Daiwa, and Nikko-to try their luck in the U. S. and European financial markets.

The Japanese are entering the New York market by selling the “financial equivalent of Toyotas” (simple, high-quality products): Treasury bills, mortgage-backed securities, corporate bonds and commercial paper. At the same time, they are establishing a presence in European financial markets. [? ] Common needs across countries also make it more difficult for competitors to differentiate themselves from one another. Rivalry, therefore, becomes more severe. (It might be argued that globalization creates larger, global segments that should have more room for competitors and, therefore, less rivalry.

In practice, however, the lure of the large global market seems to raise the ambitions of competitors. ) Consumer tastes in magazines are sufficiently common in Europe that publishers can now seel pan-European offerings. Cultural differences do not seem great enough to prevent some magazines from crossing borders; consequently, publishing firms are making an effort to sell those magazines to all of Europe with only slight changes in content. The result is significant heightening of rivalry.

In the mid-1980s, Bella was successfully launched as a European woman’s magazine, first in West Germany, then in Britain and Spain. How common customer needs are across countries clearly varies greatly by industry and depends on such factors as the importance of national culture and tastes, income elasticity, and physical conditions that might affect the use of the product or service. For customer businesses, the book publishing and magazine industries fall at the low end of the spectrum in commonality of needs because of differences in both content and language, although both these factors are changing rapidly.

At the other end of the spectrum, travel-related industries, like airlines and traveler’s checks, have needs that are inherently common across countries. Among consumer-packaged goods, most food products tend to lie at the low end while household and personal care products are nearer the middle of the spectrum. For industrial businesses, commodities, such as many chemicals and other raw materials tend toward very high commonality of needs. In contrast, more complex industrial products, such as computer equipment and process controls, range from moderate to highly common needs.

Pharmaceutical products provide an interesting contrast between prescription (ethical) drugs and over-the-counter (proprietary) drugs. The types of prescription drugs used for a given ailment tend to be more similar across countries than the types of over-the-counter drugs. In the latter case national habits in treatment tend to create differences in what consumer buy for themselves. For example, executives in one major drug company consider that Americans focus on head pains while Japanese focus on stomach pains.

The pharmaceutical industry also illustrates the critical difference between the incidence of a particular type of need and the specific products used to meet those needs. While the incidence of each disease varies greatly geographically, the products used to treat each disease are mostly identical. Customer needs may be more common then most executives think. Managers, particularly those with single-country responsibilities, then do to focus on the differences between countries, because it is the differences that require effort in adaptation. But executives can find more commonality if they look for it.

This may also explain the varying strategies of companies. Some companies have looked for commonality and acted accordingly. Canon, for example, did this in developing a global photocopier that sacrificed the ability to copy certain sizes of Japanese paper. Global Customers and Channels Global customers buy on a centralized or coordinated basis for decentralized use, or at the least they select vendors centrally. As such, “global customers” can be distinguished from “international customers,” “foreign customers,” and “local customers,” as shown in Exhibit 2-2.

Global customers, compared with other types, have both more internationalized purchasing (in the sense of buying outside domestic markets) and more globalized purchasing (in the sense of global control by headquarters). There are two types of global customers: national and multinational. A national global customer searches the world for suppliers but uses the purchased product or service in one country. National defense agencies are a good example. A multinational global customer also searches the world for suppliers and uses the purchased product or service in many countries.

Examples are the World Health Organization for medical products and some automotive companies. The existence of global customers affects the opportunity or need for global market participation, global products and services, global activity location, and global marketing. Even if the do not purchase centrally, having global customers drives a business toward developing globally standardized products. Similarly, global customers can compare prices charged by the same supplier in different countries and tend to be unhappy with unexplainable discrepancies.

Global customers usually occur in industrial categories, although in some consumer categories, such as cameras, watches, and luxury handbags, a significant portion of sales is accounted for by those buying while outside their home country. The definition of a global customer or channel can be extended to “influencers” such as physicians who prescribe drugs, architects who specify building materials, and engineers and other technical experts who specify or recommend equipment and the like.

Japanese trading companies, such as Mitsubishi and Mitsui, also act very much like global channels, although they typically make most of their “purchases” in one country-Japan. To serve its global customers, the business needs to be present in all the customers’ major markets. The U. S. advertising agency that used to have the Coca-Cola account (one of the largest in the world) was unable to serve Coca-Cola when it expanded to Brazil. So McCann-Erickson, another American, but more global agency, took the account in Brazil. Then McCann used the Brazilian relationship to win the entire Coca-cola account worldwide. ? ] One reason for AT&T’s push to expand globally is the fact that many of its customers are global, and these customers will use rivals like NEC< Siemens, or IBM for advanced voice and data networks if AT&T cannot meet their needs. Offering standardized products can also be a necessity for serving global customers. Increasingly, such global customers are requiring their suppliers play the role of global coordination. General Electric has told many of its suppliers that it expects them to be responsible for ensuring that GE businesses get uniform products around the world.

Citicorp has asked telecommunications suppliers to submit plans for a global network service. The company has also set up a centralized network unit to manage its telecommunications vendors. Some activities, such as development engineering, selling, and after-sales service, may need to be concentrated, or at least globally coordinated, in order to serve global customers effectively. Last, uniform marketing programs may be needed. Global pricing policies may be particularly important.

But suppliers who implement global account management programs have to beware of global customers using the unified account management to extract lower global prices. The latter provides an example of how the existence of global customers requires the content of marketing mix to be uniform. It is also important to recognize potential global customers. These are multinational customers who currently do not buy or coordinate centrally, but may start to do so. A global supplier can gain a first-mover or preemptive advantage by being the first to treat a potential global customer as an actual global customer.

Analogous to global customers, there may be channels of distribution that buy on a global or at least a regional basis. Global channels or middlemen are also important in exploiting differences in prices by performing the arbitrage function of transshipment. Their presence makes it more necessary for a business to rationalize its worldwide pricing. Global channels are rare, but regionwide ones are increasing in number, particularly in European grocery distribution and retailing. Aldi, the giant German supermarket chain, has recently set up a buying arm in Britain.

Three other major European supermarket chains-Casino of France, Ahold of the Netherlands and the Argyll Group of Britain-as noted earlier, agreed in 1989 to cooperate in purchasing and marketing. The existence of global (for regionwide) channels requires, like the existence of global customers, globally coordinated marketing and uniform marketing mix content. Global customer and channel issues also apply to regional (e. g. , Asian or European) customers. Indeed, regional customers are probably growing at a faster rate than are global customers, particularly in Europe.

The existence of global customers or channels cuts both ways for the threat of entry. On the one hand, it is much more difficult to displace an incumbent who is serving a customer in many countries. On the other hand, the essence of a global customer-centralized buying for multinational use-also makes a global account vulnerable to rapid total capture. A competitor may be able to capture a global account by selling the to the head office only. Global or regional channels of distribution can also be exploited for rapid entry.

Owing to the different regulatory, currency and tax environments across Europe, many insurance companies have found the need to form alliances with foreign banks in order to enter new markets. By forming these alliances, insurers plan to take advantage of the banks’ distribution networks (branches). Under a joint venture, Germany’s Allianz sells life insurance policies through the branches of Spain’s Banco Popular. In addition, Commercial Union, based in the United Kingdom, sells both life and nonlife insurance through Credito Italiano’s branches in Italy.

The presence of global customers or channels increases rivalry among existing competitors. Global customers or channels become prizes to be fought over, and the fight is global in scope. As marketers aim to expand their brands to more countries, advertising agencies have been reorganizing in order to meet the demands of their global customers. In a preemptive move with its double-page advertisement in The Wall Street Journal and The Financial Times in 1984, Saatchi & Saatchi was the first agency to publicize its global capabilities. This move annoyed many rivals with more extensive global experience and customers.

Some of these rivals then moved to enhance their own credentials. Both BBDO and Lintas crated European boards of directors; Ogilvy & Mather removed three subregional posts and appointed a European creative director and a new European chairman; DDB Needham relocated its international headquarters to Paris from New York. The international airline industry has a unique type of global customer. Most travelers, except the most patriotic, will consider all carriers that serve the route to be traveled and will select on the basis of quality, reliability, and other real and perceived attributes.

At the same time, few travelers are free to start their travel in another country in order to find the best service (an exception would be Belgians who choose to fly KLM out of Amsterdam rather than Sabena out of Brussels). On the other hand, even if airlines do not compete on points of origin and final destination, they certainly compete on intermediate destination. So Swissair and Lufthansa compete partly on the basis of the relative superiority of Zurich and Frankfurt as airports through which to make connections to Europe.

The reinsurance industry provides a more classic type of global customer. In the search for reinsurance, insurance companies, many of them multinational, scour the globe of the lowest premiums and best contracts. The high information content and relatively standardized nature of the product make it easy for reinsurance buyers to behave as global customers. [? ] Transferable Marketing The nature of buying decisions may be such that marketing elements, such as brand names and advertising, require little local adaptation; that is, brand names and advertising are readily transferable.

Transferable marketing names and advertising are readily transferable. Transferable marketing makes it easier to expand participation in markets–the business need not develop a new marketing approach. A worldwide business can also adapt its brand names and advertising campaigns to make them ore transferable or, even better, design global ones to start with. Exxon chose its new name after an intensive worldwide search for a unique and easily pronounced name to replace Esso and a mixture of other brand names. The Exxon example also highlights the importance of trademark availability.

Many companies are hampered in their efforts at consolidating around one global trademark (name) by other companies owning the rights to the names desired. By definition, transferability enables the use of uniform marketing strategies. Offsetting risks include the blandness of uniformly acceptable brand names or advertising and the vulnerability of relying on a single-brand franchise. The accepted wisdom in international marketing has long been that marketing approaches need to be tailored for each country. For example, advertising should be developed locally and designed to appeal to the local audience.

But companies are finding ways to succeed with uniform or only slightly modified marketing. [? ] Such transferable marketing greatly lengthens the reach and punch of global competitors. [? ] Marketing elements that are transferable across countries can both raise and reduce entry barriers. On the one hand, incumbent competitors can leverage global marketing to build high barriers in almost every market. Coca-Cola has created not just national but global barriers to entry with its global advertising and packaging. On the other hand, potential entrants can use transferable marketing as a “gateway to entry. [? ] Entrants can apply the advertising, packaging designs, and so on that they have developed elsewhere. Transferable brand names and reputation need the additional factor of spillover media, foreign travel by potential customers, or other vehicles of communication before they can be used to reduce international entry barriers. Transferable marketing adds a dimension to rivalry among existing competitors. Not only must rivals try to develop the best marketing programs in each country, but they must compete in their ability to transfer successful programs from country to country.

Companies without a transfer mechanism can find themselves outmarketed one country at a time by a rival that globally leverages a successful approach. In the toothpaste market, Colgate-Palmolive has achieved global share leadership partly through its successful application of a global approach to branding, packaging, and advertising. In contrast, rivals like Unilever and Beecham have lagged with different approaches in different countries. Overall, it seems that global marketing is more acceptable than indicated by its fairly low level of use.

Furthermore, general globalization forces, such as increasing travel, will increase the level of acceptance. Lead Countries Innovation in products or processes may tend to occur in just one or a few “lead countries. ” Such concentration of innovation may spring from the concentration of innovative competitors or of demanding customers or both. In that case it becomes critical for global competitors to participate in these lead countries in order to be exposed to the sources of innovation. Customers may view market position in a lead country as a surrogate for overall quality.

Companies frequently promote a product in one country as, for example, “the leading brand in the U. S. A. ” Lead countries can be easily identified as those in which the most important product or process innovations occur. [? ] In many industries, there are lead countries in which major global competitors are based and where the bulk of innovations occur. For example, Japan is a lead country for consumer electronics, Germany for industrial control equipment, and the United States for computer software.

In such industries it is critical for all competitors with global ambitions to participate in the lead countries. In many industries the key lead countries are the United States, Japan, and major European countries like Germany or the United Kingdom. Other countries, of course, do take the lead in particular industries, such as Denmark for insulin and Italy for ceramic tiles. [? ] Most American and European companies have a very small presence in Japan and increasingly worry that they are missing out on innovations in that country.

A few American companies have started to make the major commitments needed to set up R&D operations in Japan so as to be able to tap into the growing stream of Japanese innovations. The existence of lead countries can increase the threat of entry. Potential entrants can readily identify the key innovations, even if they choose to enter other countries first. Furthermore, the lead countries become prized targets for entry. As Japan increasingly becomes in many industries an innovator rather than an imitator, American and European companies need to recognize this critically of Japan as a lead country.

There is certainly a gap to date in the seriousness with which American companies address Japan. This gap is symbolized by the far higher ratio of patents filled in the United States by Japanese companies relative to the number filed by American companies in Japan. Rivalry is fiercer in lead countries as competitors recognize the strategic as well as financial importance of success there. In particular, companies need to recognize the value of investing to build a strong position in lead markets, particularly if those markets are the home of major global rivals.

COST GLOBALIZATION DRIVERS Cost Globalization drivers-global scale economies, steep experience effects, sourcing efficiencies, favorable logistics, differences in country costs, high product development costs, and fast-changing technology-depend on the economics of the business. These drivers particularly affect the use of the global activity location lever, as well as the global market participation and global product levers. Exhibit 2-3 ranks on cost globalization drivers the same industries ranked in Exhibit 2-1 on market globalization drivers.

Notice some of the differences: pharmaceuticals (ethical) rises to the top of the cost rankings while soft drinks fall to the bottom. Global Economies of Scale and Scope Global economies of scale apply when single-country markets are not large enough to allow competitors to achieve optimum scale. Scale at a given location of activity can then be increased through participation in multiple markets, combined with product standardization and /or concentration of selected value activities. But corresponding risks of increasing scale at one location include rigidity and vulnerability to disruption.

There has been a shift in the economics of the electronics industry. As the cost of circuits has decreased, the cost advantage has gone to companies that can produce the lowest cost components. Size has become a major asset. Among others, Thomson, the French electronics maker, has realized the need to have a worldwide presence in an industry characterized by economies of scale. Accordingly, Thomson instituted a major global expansion that included the acquisition of General Electric’s RCA consumer electronics business. [? ]

In many cases it seems to be global economies of scope (the gains from spreading activities across multiple product lines or businesses) rather than economies of scale (the gains from increasing the volume of an activity that push businesses to internationalize or to globalize. Economies of scale at the manufacturing level, in consumer household products such as detergent and toothpaste, can typically be achieved by national plants in most but the smallest countries. Yet these industries are dominated by a handful of multinational firms: Unilever, Procter & Gamble, and Colgate-Palmolive.

It seems that the economies of scope involved in consumer research, product development, and the creation of marketing programs, provide a major source of the competitive advantage enjoyed by multi-national companies in these industries. Global scale economies reduce the threat of the entry, particularly from potential entrants that are national companies. Where global scale economies apply, it will not be possible for an entrant to achieve competitive economic scale by entering a single national market. A nonmultinational will find it very difficult to get started in such an industry.

In the disposable syringe industry, the minimum economic size in production has been estimated to be 60% of the combined market in the United States and Japan. [? ] As a result, national competitors play little role in this industry that is dominated by multinational companies like Becton Dickinson (U. S. ) and Terumo (Japan). Conversely, where economies are not at a global scale, an entrant can start in a smaller country-market and gradually build the experience that will allow it to export to larger markets. That is why the U. S. arket has become so vulnerable to imported personal computers and other products that can be effectively manufactured in low volumes. Global scale economies also broaden the scope of competitive rivalry. With national scale economies also broaden the scope of competitive rivalry. With national scale economies, competitors have to worry about national market share in order to stay at the economically efficient scale. In the presence of global scale economies, competitors have to worry about their global share. Loss of share in any country will directly affect the cost position of any sister country with which activities are shared.

Steep Experience Curve Even if scale and scope economies are exhausted, expanded market participation, product standardization, and activity concentration can accelerate the accumulation of learning and experience effects (learning effects apply to direct manufacturing while experience effects apply to the entire production process). The steeper the learning and experience slopes, the greater is the potential benefit. Managers should beware, though, of the usual danger in pursuing experience curve strategies? over-aggressive pricing that destroys not just the competition but the market also.

A steep experience curve has similar effects as global scale economies on the threat of entry and rivalry among competitors. Global Sourcing Efficiencies The international market for supplies may allow centralized purchasing to achieve global souring efficiencies. Himont, at one time a joint venture between Hercules, Inc. , of the United States and Motedison spa of Italy, is the leader of the global polypropylene market. Central to Himont’s strategy is global coordination among manufacturing facilities in the purchase of raw materials, particularly monomer, the key ingredient in polypropylene production.

Rationalization of raw material orders significantly strengthens the venture’s low-cost production advantage. Sourcing efficiencies have a similar effect as global scale economies on the threat of entry and rivalry among competitors. Favorable Logistics A favorable ratio of sales value to transportation cost enhances the ability to concentrate production. Other logistical factors include non-perishability, the absence of time urgency, and little need for location close to costumer facilities. Low transportation costs allow concentration of production. Even the shape of the product can make a crucial difference.

Cardboard tubes, such as those used as cores for textiles, are not economically shippable because the tubes are mostly air. In contrast, cardboard cones are transportable because they can be stacked, allowing many more units in the same space. In general, higher-priced/higher-quality products within any category face more favorable logistics. So French ”vin de table” stays home while good Burgundies travel everywhere. Favorable logistics increase the threat of entry. The low costs make it much easier for foreign entrants to enter markets, by exporting.

Favorable logistics also increase rivalry among existing competitors by expanding the geographic scope of competition. Rivals can readily shift products from country to country, such that competition is between global production capabilities. Differences in Country Costs Differences in country costs can provide a strong spur to globalization. Factor costs generally vary across countries, and more so for particular industries. The availability of the particular skills also varies. Concentration of activities in low-cost or high-skill countries can increase productivity and reduce costs.

But managers need to anticipate the danger of training future offshore competitors. [? ] Volkswagen’s relocation of production. Under attack from lower-priced cars, Volkswagen has been under pressure to reduce its costs. One of the primary ways it has done this is by concentrating its production in various locations to take advantage of the differences in country costs. In Spain, hourly labor costs have been less than half that in Germany. To take advantage of this cost differential, the company moved production of Polos from Wolfsburg to Spain freeing up the high-wage German labor to produce the higher-priced Golf cars.

Another example of this concentration occurred when Volkswagen shut down its New Stanton, Pennsylvania, plant that manufactured Golfs and Jettas. The lower end of the U. S. market was served instead by its low wage facility in Brazil that produced the Fox. The higher end of the product line (Jetta and Golf) was exported from Europe. This concentration and coordination of production has enabled the company to make substantial cost savings. Large variations in costs among the countries that produce or might produce a particular product increase the threat of entry from foreign sources.

Japan, and then the “four tigers” of South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore, have very successfully leveraged low factor costs in entering many international industries. Other Southeast Asian countries like Thailand are making similar entries in high-labor-cost industries like construction wallboard. Eastern European countries may be the next to exploit low-cost, but high-skill, labor in threatening entry. Having a low cost of goods sold, relative to the selling price, is often an industry’s best protection from cheap imports.

Thus, marketing-intensive consumer products businesses, like disposable razors, are still the preserve of American and European producers. Differences in country costs increase rivalry among existing competitors by creating differential sources of competitive advantage. Rivalry heightened between Japanese and European consumer electronics manufacturers when the Japanese and European consumer electronics manufacturers when the Japanese discovered that it was cheaper to produce Europe-bound products in the United States than at home.

Ricoh assembles photocopiers containing 90% Japanese parts in California and re-exports them to Europe. Furthermore, Sony produces audiotapes and videotapes at an Alabama plant, and audio recorders at a Florida plant, and ships them to Europe for sale. Similarly, the United Kingdom has become the preferred European manufacturing site for many Japanese companies. As a result the U. K. government has been embroiled in a dispute with other European Community governments on the extent of local content needed to qualify as “Made in Europe. ”

Exchange rates, and changes in them, provide a major source of the variation in costs between countries. But the effect of exchange rates works in one direction for the costs between countries. But the effect of exchange rates works in one direction for the cost of local inputs, such as labor and some raw materials, and usually in the opposite direction for imported inputs and foreign services. So it is usually only labor-intensive industries, or those in which local materials and supplies are both important and plentiful, where exchange rates can have a major impact on relative country costs. High Product Development Costs

High product development costs are relative to the size of national markets act as a driver to globalization. Phillips, the Dutch multinational, has estimated that technology developments in public telecommunications increased the cost of product development by enormous multiples. In the 1950s development costs for conventional electromechanical switching systems were about $10 million and they had an expected life cycle of about 25 years. By the beginning of 1970 when the analog system was introduced, development costs had jumped to $200 million, while the life cycle fell to twelve to fifteen years.

In the 1980s, when the first digital systems were developed, costs had risen to $1 billion for a life expectancy of eight to twelve years. Philips calculates that digital development expenses of $1 billion require roughly 8% share of the world market just to recover costs. The largest single market in Europe-Germany-can in total deliver less than that share. [? ] Managers can reduce high product development costs by developing a few global or regional products rather than many national products. But the process for designing global products must not be so cumbersome as to slow the entire process.

The automobile industry is characterized by long product development periods and high product development costs. One reason for the high costs is duplication of effort across countries. Ford Motor Company’s “Centers of Excellence” program aims to reduce these duplicating efforts and to exploit the differing expertise of Ford specialists worldwide. As part of the concentrated effort, Ford of Europe is designing a common platform for all compacts, while Ford of North America is developing platforms for the replacement of the mid-sized Taurus and Sable.

This concentration of design is estimated to save “hundreds of millions of dollars per model by eliminating duplicative efforts and saving on retooling factories. ”[? ] High product development costs also have a similar effect as global scale economies on the threat of entry and rivalry among competitors. Fast-Changing Technology Fast-changing technology, in products or processes, usually accompanies high product high product development costs, and in itself already increases industry globalization potential: 1. The cost of embodying the technology changes typically drives companies to amortize that cost across as many markets as possible. . Companies that pioneer a particular technology usually feel pressured to globalize that innovation rapidly in order to exploit it before imitators do so. So both the cost and preemption reasons just cited spur companies to increase their global market participation. 3. A company can better exploit and protect its new technologies by using globally integrated competitive moves that include a clear prioritization of when and where to use the technology against competitors. Government Globalization Drivers Government globalization drivers-? avorable trade policies, compatible technical standards, common marketing regulations, government-owned competitors and customers, and host government concerns-? depend on the rules set by national governments, and affect use of all global strategy levers. Exhibit 2-4 ranks on government globalization drivers the same industries as those ranked on market and cost globalization drivers in Exhibits 2-1 and 2-3. Again, notice some of the differences: toothpaste rises to the top while electrical insulation falls near the bottom of the rankings. Favorable Trade Policies

Host governments affect globalization potential in a number of major ways: import tariffs and quotas, non-tariff barriers, export subsidies, local content requirements, currency and capital flow restrictions, ownership restrictions, and requirement on technology transfer. [? ] Governments’ exercise of these trade barriers makes it difficult for companies to use the global levers of global market participation, global products and services, global activity location and global marketing and affects the need to use the lever of global competitive moves. Government policies greatly restrict global market participation in the media industries.

In many countries, foreign control of the media is restricted or prohibited. Some countries also impose other, special restrictions. In Canada magazines must be printed in the country or else be charged a higher postal rate? in effect a local content requirement that restricts a company’s choice on activity location. [? ] France has strict rules on cultural content, limiting the quantity of foreign material that can be broadcast on radio and television. The newsprint industry also faces unfavorable trade barriers, probably because of its political salience as part of the natural resource sector.

In the 1070s many national governments responded to the oil crisis and consequent business bankruptcies by intervening with subsidies, tax laws, cartels, and delays in scheduled tariff reductions and quota increases. [? ] National trade policies particularly constrain the extent to which companies can concentrate manufacturing activities. Aggressive U. S. government actions and threats on tariffs, quotas, and protectionist measures have helped convince Japanese automobile manufacturers to give up their concentration of manufacturing in Japan. Reluctantly, Japanese ompanies have opened plants in the United States. Honda even made a public relations virtue out of necessity. It gave great publicity to the first shipment of an American-made Honda car to Japan. The easing of government restrictions can set off a rush for expanded market participation. European Community regulations for banking and financial services are among those being harmonized in the 1992-process. The EC decision to permit free flow of capital among its member countries in 1992 has led to a jockeying for position among European financial institutions.

Until recently, the Deutsche Bank had only fifteen offices outside Germany, but it has now established a major presence in the French market. In 1987, Deutsche Bank also moved into the Italian market by acquiring Bank of America’s one hundred or so branches there. Other financial organizations from different countries, such as J. P. Morgan of the United States, Swiss Bank Corporation, and the S. G. Warburg Group in Britain, have increased their participation in major European markets through acquisitions. Favorable trade policies, by definition, increase the threat of foreign entry.

Japan’s agreement to eliminate the quota on American beef enabled many U. S. producers to enter the coveted Japanese market. U. S. trade representatives convinced Japan to replace the quota, which was equivalent to a tariff of almost 400%, with a tariff of 70% in 1989 and a tariff of 50% three years later. American beef may become as successful in Japan as American credit cards, which benefitted from a similar removal of restriction in the late 1970s. Favorable trade policies increase rivalry among existing international competitors by making it easier for them to compete in each others’ markets.

The opening up of European financial markets, created by the Europe 1992 changes, has made rivals of national European banks. Until the changes, banks like Germany’s Deutsche Bank, Britain’s Barclays Bank, and France’s Banque Nationale de Paris competed only in fringe activities. Now they increasingly recognize each other as major rivals. Compatible Technical Standards Differences in technical standards among countries affect the extent to which products can be standardized. Government restrictions in terms of technical standards can make or break efforts at product standardization.

Often, standards are set with protectionism in mind. Motorola, a leading American electronics manufacturer, has found that many of its products were excluded from the Japanese market on the grounds that these products operated at a higher frequency than that permitted in Japan. Motorola has spent many years, with some notable successes, to get Japan to change its standards. Over-the-counter pharmaceuticals, being sold directly to the public, face strict standards that vary from country to country. Maximum allowed dosage is perhaps the greatest source of incompatibility.

In contrast, while still strict, governments are more liberal with prescription pharmaceuticals, so that standards are typically more compatible. At the other end of the scale, the airline industry has to have highly compatible technical standards in order to function at all. For example, all international airports have similar run-way lengths to accommodate the largest passenger jets, and the universal language used around the world in cockpits and control towers is English. Telecommunications have been regarded by governments as contributing to national security.

So they have tended to rely on domestic suppliers. As a consequence the world now faces a hodge-podge of standards in telecommunications. In Europe, Spain has a three-second busy tone while Denmark has a two-second one. France’s telephone numbers have to be seven digits long while Italy’s can be any length. German telephones operate on 60 volts, while other European countries use 8 volts. And so on. [? ] Compatible technical standards can make it easier for new entrants to achieve needed scale. With one product they can enter many markets at once.

Lack of major differences in country technical standards greatly helped Japan’s Canon enter the photocopier market in the early 1970s. Canon was able to design a single global product that needed minor modifications only for individual countries. Compatible technical standards increase rivalry among existing competitors by making it easier for them to invade each other’s market. In telecommunications, the emergence of a new set of international standards, synchronous optical networking (SONET), is increasing global rivalry among existing competitors.

Currently, the process of digitizing voice calls and data traffic into computer languages and speed transmitting them is an extremely inefficient process. Incompatible equipment must repeatedly code the digital streams and amplify them to reach their destinations. SONET will, however, permit a single fiber optic strand to carry 32,000 channels of voice and data messages simultaneously, quadrupling existing capacity. [? ] Northern Telecom of Canada introduced its SONET-based system in 1989, while AT&T of the United States and Alcatel of France were developing their own SONET-based lines.

Another example of the competitive power of compatible standards is the new electrical plug for the European Community. To avoid giving an advantage to any one country, the EC plans to standardize on a new plug that is incompatible with an y current EC or non-EC plug! Common Marketing Regulations The marketing environments of individual countries affects the extent to which uniform global marketing approaches can be used. Certain types of media may not be allowed or may have restrictions on their use. The United States is far more liberal than Europe in the kinds of advertising claims that can be made on television.

The British television authorities even veto the depiction of socially undesirable behavior, such as scenes of children pestering their parents to buy a product. And, of course, the use of sex is different. At one extreme, France is far more liberal than the United States about sex in advertising. There can also be limitations on various promotional devices, such as lotteries. In the United States, promotional competitions cannot require skill or special knowledge! Common marketing regulations increase rivalry among existing international competitors by making it easier for them to invade each thers’ markets. British Airways has used a uniform global advertising campaign to help increase its market share in many countries around the world. Government-Owned Competitors The presence of government-owned competitors can increase the globalization potential of an industry. Such competitors frequently enjoy subsidies as well as protected home markets, and are often a major source of foreign exchange earnings. That combination both allows and spurs them to pursue foreign markets aggressively. In response, other competitors need to have a global plan for fending off government-owned competitors

The existence of government-owned competitors increases the threat of entry. Similarly, government-owned competitors increase rivalry because of their differing motivations from private competitors. According to a disgruntled American competitor, Spanish and Italian government-owned manufacturers of aluminum products typically act to depress prices in the European market. Government-Owned Customers In contrast to government-owned competitors, the presence of government-owned customers provides a barrier to globalization.

Such customers usually favor national suppliers. The recent privatization of some European telecommunications companies has spurred greater global competition in the equipment-supplying industry. Host Government Concerns Last, in addition to the specific government drivers just discussed, firms pursuing a global strategy need to be aware of the concerns of host governments. According to Yves Doz. [? ] 4. Global business will quickly respond to shifts in the relative factor cost competitiveness of various manufacturing locations by relocating to different countries. 5.

Global integration gives multinational companies more opportunity to bias the financial results of subsidiaries to decrease total tax liability. 6. 7. Value-chain specialization within global businesses will keep key competencies outside their countries. 8. The weakening of national decision centers under global strategy makes it more difficult for governments to deal with multinational companies. In addition, governments and companies usually have a desire for local reliance in major or strategic industries, for example, the textile industry in a number of Asian countries.

So governments will seldom allow major industries to depend for key inputs on supply from foreign countries, particularly distant ones. Competitive Globalization Drivers Competitive globalization drivers- high exports and imports, competitors from different continents, interdependence of countries and globalized competitors? raise the globalization potential of their industry and spur the need for a response on the global strategy lever. Exhibit 2-5 ranks on competitive globalization drivers the same industries ranked on market, cost, and government drivers in Exhibit 2-1,2-3, and 2-4.

Civil aircraft and computers probably rank highest in competitive drivers while book publishing ranks lowest. High Exports and Imports The most basic competitive driver is the level of exports and imports of both final and intermediate products and services. The more trade there is between countries the more do competitors come from different continents or countries. Because their differing backgrounds spur different objectives and approaches, global competition among rivals from different continents tends to be more severe. Interdependent Countries

A competitor may create competitive interdependence among countries by pursuing a global strategy. This effect arises from the sharing of activities. For example, a business may use a plant in Mexico to serve both the U. S. and Japanese markets. So market share gains in Japan will affect volume in the Mexican plant, which in turn, will affect costs and ultimately the business’s market share in the United States. Thus, with interdependent countries, a competitor’s market share in one country contributes to its overall cost position and, therefore, its share position in another country.

Such interdependence helps a company to subsidize attacks on competitors in different countries. But it also requires the company to manage its competitive position jointly in each country rather than leave that task just to local management. Other competitors then need to respond via increased global market participation, global marketing, or globally integrated competitive strategy to avoid a downwar4d spiral of sequentially weakened positions in individual countries. Interdependence among countries makes entry more difficult.

An incumbent competitor can be expected to retaliate more fiercely in order to protect its interdependent position. Protecting the share of a subsidiary becomes doubly important when that also means preserving the cost position of subsidiaries in other countries. Interdependence among countries also increases rivalry among existing international competitors. It requires competitors to worry about their market share in multiple countries simultaneously In particularly, they should be much more willing to give up profits in one country in order to protect their position in other, dependent countries.

Globalized Competitors Competitors are globalized to the extent that they use the global strategy levers of global market participation, global products and services, global location of activities, global marketing, and global competitive moves. When a business’ competitors use global strategy to exploit industry globalization potential, the business needs to match or preempt these competitors. These moves include expansion into or within major markets, being the first to introduce a standardized product or the first to use a uniform marketing program.

Competitors pursuing a global strategy place pressure on the industry as a whole to globalize. For example, competitors that push globally standardized products or use globally uniform marketing will influence customers to find global products and marketing more acceptable. The need to preempt a global competitor can be the spur to increased market participation. In 1986 Unilever, the Anglo-Dutch consumer products company, sought to increase its participation in the American market by launching a hostile takeover bid for Richardson-Vicks, a U. S. -based multinational manufacturer of toiletry and health care products.

Unilever’s global archival, Procter & Gamble, saw the threat to its home turf and outbid Unilever to capture Richardson-Vicks. With Richardson-Vicks’ European system P&G was able to greatly strengthen its participation in Unilever’s base markets in Europe. So Unilever’s attempt to expand participation in a rival’s home market backfired to allow the rival to expand participation in Unilever’s home markets. Globalized existing competitors reduce the threat of entry from new entrants-? there are more likely to be powerful multinational incumbents defending each market.

Incumbents with integrated global strategies can draw on their worldwide assets and resources to suppress potential national entrants. Major U. S. consumer goods companies have typically viewed Europe as a single, broad market, and consequently, deployed their assets across national boundaries. This globalized posture has made it more difficult for their European competitors to enter and compete in markets other than their home country. In contrast, until spurred by Europe 1992, European companies have tended to focus their efforts in a single, national market.

A recent study of 45 major European food companies found that half had a presence in only one or two countries. GE’s global moves in major appliances. In the appliance industry, globalized competitors have greatly increased industry rivalry. The formation of strategic alliances between Whirlpool and Maytag in efforts to give them a global advantage has provoked General Electric to alter its strategy and globalize its efforts as well. In the 1960s, GE had closed down its production operations in Italy to get out of the European appliance market altogether. By concentrating on the U.

S. market, GE increased its market share to a comfortable 30% level. But the recent globalization of its competitors has exerted pressure on GE. In an effort to match its competitors’ globalizing moves, GE decided to enhance its world market position before 1992, when the European Community removes its remaining barriers to internal trade. In 1989, GE formed a joint venture with Britain’s General Electric Company (GEC) whereby GE purchased 50% of GEC’s European appliance business for $575 million. Guidelines for Diagnosing Industry Globalization Potential

Getting a good understanding of industry globalization potential is the starting point for developing an effective total global strategy. In diagnosing this potential, managers should find the following guidelines useful: 9. Do not assume that industries are either global or not global. Instead, nearly every industry has globalization potential in some aspects and not others. 10. Different industry globalization drivers can operate in different directions, some favoring globalization and others making it difficult and inadvisable. 11.

Businesses can respond selectively to industry globalization drivers, by globalizing only those elements of strategy affected by favorable drivers. 12. The level of globalization potential changes over time. 13. Industry globalization drivers can work at a regional or continental scale as well as at a global scale. 14. Industry competitors can themselves affect some globalization drivers. The competitors that stimulate these changes typically reap the major benefits. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] ———————– [pic]

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